The main barrier in the development of large-scaöe quantum information processing in diamond is the electrical quantum connection of spin registers (a quantum bus). This project has generated fundamental knowledge on the physics of valley-polarized conduction band states in diamond. This knowledge will be highly valuable for achieving the vision of quantum information processing circuits and spin anf valley based quantum computing. Our recent discovery that ultra-pure diamond can exhibit very long valley relaxation times that makes it possible to generate valley-polarized currents is a major leap towards such devices. During these two years of the study we have performed modelling and simulation which were an integral part thoughout the project to support the experimental activities. We have developed extensive process technology (etching, doping, dielectric deposition etc.) for diamond and have gained experience in charge transport measurements and electronic device technology. However, many issues remain to be solved before scalable solid-state quantum processing can be performed in any material.
Author: Markus Gabrysch
The aim of this project was to develop a novel technique to recover toxic heavy metals from contaminated solutions. The technique is based on eletrochemical alloy information, where toxic heavy metal atoms or ions are incorporated in a noble metal placed on the cathode in an electrochemical cell. In this project, focus has been on revcovery of mercury. Platinum was used to recover mercury from aqueous solutions via electrochemical formation of PtHg4. The overall process is schematized and comprises two steps: uptake of mercury from solution (alloy formation), and rengeration of the electrode for further re-use (decomposition of the alloy to regenerate platinum, and recover mercury). The technology has potential applications in decontamination of, e.g. industrial and natural waters containing toxcic metals. The method is a reagent-free alternative to chemical processing, which requires the used and/or addition of chemichal compounds.
Author: Björn Wickman
This report presents results from the proejct "Spectral Measurements for the prediction of Biomass Properties" (SPECTRA) financed by ÅForsk. The foundation's contribvtion has enable Mälardalen University to purchase a new diode-array near-infrared spectrophotometer (DA-NIRS). The instrument has been used for developing biomass property prediction models for use as on-line soft-sensors for optimal process control and diagnostics. Results from our NIR research efforts are described in this report. Overall, the project has been very successful. It has helped Mälardalen University efforts in developing a state-of-the-art NIR spectroscopy lab and furthermore, it has enabled the Future Energy Center to develop research applications with high industrial relevance for external financing. To that extend we are delighted to report back that we have been succeful in securing an approximately 5.75MEuro grant from the European Commission (Horizon 2020, SPIRE 2) for the project FUDIPO "Furture Directions of Production Planning and Optimized Energy- and Process Industries". FUDIPO will bring to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 through 5 full-scale on-line demonstrators advanced technologies for process optimal control, diaganostics and decision-making, led by Mälardalens Unversity. The 11-partner strong project consortium includes the following organizations: ABB, TIETO, Tupras, Mälarenergi, Billerud-university, MTT, Bestwood, Idener, Franhofer Institute and SICS. FUDIPO is the only university-led international project of such size across Sweden, and one of only a handful across Europe that is financed by the European Commission.
Author: Konstantinos Kyprianidis
Waste is generated along the production of products (i.e. during extracting resources, processing and production) and also when unwanted products are discarded. Although most consumers are aware of the amount of waste they dispose of, relatively few are aware of the waste generated in the course of producing the goods that they have consume. This project builds upon previous work to advance a methodological approach for quantification and communiacation of the pre-consumer waste footprint of products. The purpose is to address the main ciriticims that the work received in a per-review-process: how to deal with the subjectivity of waste, are the indicator appropriated for communicating results, what is the usefulness of a product waste footprint.
Author: Åsa Mörberg
Being able to store energy from non-continuous power sources such as wind and solar power in the form of fuel to be used on demand will be an important step towards a fossll-free economy. In the current application a set of anatase based catalysts showing very promising results for the conversation of CO2 into fuel have been explored with a novel quantum cyhemical modeling techniques. The large amount of TiO2 produced globally on a yearly basis makes it a particularly interesting candidae. The aim of the current project was to understand the underlying mechanisms at play in the current castalysts but foremost to propose a knowledge based improvement to them0. Our simulations show that a combination of oxygen vacancies and addition of small amounts Ru (single atoms on the surface) can reduce the main bottle necks in the catalytic reation. The knowledge may allow for cheap and efficient catalysts to be produced. The project was made possible by new simulation techniques emerginng for the study of catalytic reation in complex systems.
Author: Jolla Kullgren
Author: Frida Jones
The goal of this project was to develop method transfers to safer and more environmentally friendly methods for analys & purification of so called Active Pharmaceutical Ingeredients (APIs). This i s of outmost importance for the Swedish pharmaceutical sector and we are therefore grateful to ÅForsk for this grant and to AstraZeneca for eqaul co-financing. The pharmaceutical industry is regulated by governmental agencies to ensure the safety, quality and efficacy of the produced drug products. Analytical methods are a necessary part of the drug application and are used to generate data for acceptance. However, the regulatory issues are complicated and time consuming when int comes to Quality Control (CQ) method transfer. For example, when transferring an old QC-method from High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to modern Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) that provides a considerable increase in throughout and reduced solvent consumption. The main goal of this project was to use a scientific knowledge based concept, called "Quality by Design" (QbD), unlike traditional methods, doesn't require interaction with regulatory agencies for changes. As a case example, we studied a QC method transfer from HPLC to UHPL of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in Losec (Omeprazole) produced by AstraZeneca. The QbD concept, which requires deep understanding of the analysis process, was successfully used for this method transfer by combining experiments and advanced algortih development done by specalist in scientific computing. This is a practical examplele for the Swedish pharmaceutical indutries on how to use the QbD concept for flexible and easy method transfers, AstraZeneca is currently implementing this QbD concept and estimates that it will save them a significant amount of time and money.
Author: Torgny Fornstedt
The objective of this project was to develop method for production of bioplastics films from citrus wastes. The citrus wastes were obtained from the Bramhult Juice AB in Borås and contained pectin (30%), cellulose-hemicellulose (50%), and free sugars (7%). In the first part if the project, method of extraction of pecting from citrus wastes was optimized. Purified pectin was later used for production of bioplastics films (third part of the project). In the second part of the project, the free sugars present in the citrus waste were separated by water extraction and employed for cultivation of fungi. Fungal cultivation was tested for different strains and cultivations were successfully performed from bench scale to a 20 l pilot bio-reactor. Free sugar solution obtained from citrus waste had a high potential for fungal growth and no auxiliary nutrients were needed. In the pilot scale bioreactors, a biomass yieled of 0.225 g biomass per g free sugars was achieved at the end of cultivations. The obtained biomass was later employed for production of bioplastics films. In the third part of the project bioplastics films were prepared from citrus wastes and fungal biomass using two diffrent approaches. In the first approach a solvent casting method was developed for preparation of films. Briefly, after removal of free sugars, the residue of the citrus wastes was subjected to a milling process process to reduce the size of the particles. The obtained powder was then mixed with citric acid to dissolve the pectin. The obtained mixture., which was a suspension of cellulose/hemicellulose fibers in pectin solution, was subjected to a casting process to obtain the films. Glycerol was employed as a plasticizer. The obtained films which showed a opaque appearance with yellowish colour hade a tensile strength of about 35 MPa, which is in the range of the tensile strenght for some commodity plastics. This pectin based biocomposite had a homogeneous structure according to SEM images. In order to decrease the costs for production of the films, in the second approach, a solvent free method was developed. In this method pure pectin powder was mixed with glycerol and subjected to a heat compression molding process to form the films. The obtained pectin films exhibited a tensile strenght of about 16 MPa which is in the range of the strength of the pectin film obtained by casting method. Incorporation of up to 15% of the fungal biomass to the pectin film improves (reduced) the water vapor transition capacity of the films while did not change the mechanical strength of the films significantly. The results fo this project indicate that the citrus wastes in combination with fungal biomass have high potentials for production of bioplastic films.
Author: Akram Zamani
In a partitioning and transmutation scenario, efficient recovery of the actinides from the used nuclear fuel is essential. The GANEX (grouped actinide extration) process was developed with the aim to co-separate the transuranic actinide elements from spent nuclear fuel. In contrary to the PUREX process, no pure plutonium stream is produced throughout the process which is a protection from the dissolved fuel and successfully carried out in lab-scale process testes. However, the tested systems have few drawbacks that can be improved. In this work a TODGA-derivate is tested for the GANEX second step. The molecule should have high Pu loading capacity and high separation factors towards corrosion products and non-Ln fission products. Batch experiments were carried out to test the extraction properties of the molecule. Pu was well extracted with a loading capacity of >30 g/L Pu (start aqueous concentratrion). Batch experiments also showed low distribution ratios for problematic elements i.e. Sr, Zr, Mo and Fe at an acidity up to 2 M HNO3. However, in single stage centrifugal contactor tests, Sr was difficult to scrub while Pu had a bit lower D (2.1) than expected. A calculated flow-sheet is presented but further experiments are needed for optimisation. In conclusion, the tested molecule looks suitalbe for the GANEX process but further testing is needed.
Author: Daniel Magnusson
Author: Baozhong Zhang
Improved surveillance and process controll are needed to optimize todays waste water treatment facilities. Traditional measurements techniqes often demand that instruments are placed inside pipes or in other positions inside the process. This can be problematic when analyzing fluids with a tendency for scaling and in some cases, lead to to deviating online analysis values. Improved surveillance and process control can lead to decreased chemical demand, less personnel demand at the facilities, and optimization of the process and lower emissions. A positive resultat therefore has a great impact both enviromentally and economically. Aconse Technology Active Acoustic Spectroscopy is a noninvasive technology for online analysis of process fluids by using a know sound signal and how it is affected by the process fluid. The technology has been identified as a possible method to improve the online analysis for these processes. In the project the technology has been tested and evaluated at several different process streams in sludge treatment at three diferent mills. The project was conducted by installing one instrument to reach tested stream and collect acoustic data and reference values (lab samples). This data was then used to derive mathematical models to be used to analyze the flows online. The results from the project shows that it was possible to derive a well working model with good predictive ability for online analysis of effluents with sludge contents from 2000 to 30 000 mg/l. Analysis of lower concentrations can from the project results neither be recommended nor said to be inappropriate for the method active acoustic spectroscopy. To summarize it can be said that the tested method can provide informatio about the sludge content continuously and in real timw which helps stabilizing sludge related processes and improvement of process control.
Author: Pia Holmberg
Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficutl to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains which is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses, can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. The substrate was successfully used for an additional 4.7 g/L of ethanol was produced. When the whole stillage was supplemented with 1.5, and 10 FPU/g SS (suspended solids) of cellulase cocktail, 8.6, 10.5, and 11.6 g/L etahnol was produced respectively. Based on the amount of ethanol produced per unit of cellulase, 1 N.intermedia was found to be clearly superior in its ethanol production from whole stillage degrade complex carbon sources and its ability to utilize pentose sugars. Furthermore, by applying a two-stage process using the two filmanetous fungi N.intermedia and A.oryzae it was possible to further increase the degradation of carbohydrates in the whole stillage and produce 5.8 g/L of easily separable fungal biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein. To further increase the ethanol production pretreatment using dilute phosphoric or sulphuric acid was introduced to increase the degradability of the whole stillage fibres. The pretreatment caused more than 85% of the sugars to be released from the fibres after enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation of the pretreated substrate with N.intermedia was also successful, resulting in ethanol yields approaching 90% of the theoretical (based on the glucan content of the fibres).
Author: Patrik Lennartsson
The study developed a method to estimate long-term potential environmental risks from the spreading of pollutants from contaminated landslide runout deposit in rivers. The estimated risk is defined as the probability of failing to comply with environmental quality standards for aquatic and marine water. The equations employed describing the landslide deposit, as well as the processes controlling the subsequent erosion of the deposit and the transport downstream of the eroded material, involve significant schematizations. However, the basic physical mechanisms for mobilization and transport of material is included implying that the model should capture the overall behavior of the transport of values or represented by an uncertainty distribution. The estimation of the probability to exceed the defined failure criteria given a landslide is done by propagating the uncertainty associated with the model input parameters by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The method is illustrated by means of a case study. The results from the case study that contaminated runout deposit will likely cause contamination levels above EQS in the near field for a long period of time if dredging is not carried out. The results further indicate that is not likely that the far field estuary will be affected above the EQS, due to particle settlement. The landslide probability governs the result, but setting velocity, river flow velocity and erodibility coefficient also become important for the results. Despeite some simplifications, the method can provide indications on the potential long-term ecological risks of a landslide of contaminated soil into a river, and can act as a complement to existing methods for contaminated site risk assessment and landslide risk assessments, as well as being part of an integrated water management plan that should consider several possible risks for the water body.
Author: Gunnel Göransson
This project aims to improve possibilities for increasing use of electric vehicles by developing catalytic materials with the potential to significantly reduce the costs of fuel cells. One of the most promising materials for fuel cells is platnium (Pt) alloyed with yttrium (Y), giving a fivefold increase in activity for bulk samples. In this project methods compatible with mass-fabrication for depoistion of thin films of platnium alloyed with yttrium have been developed. Also, methods of pre-treatments, to improve the activity and stability of the catalyst further, have been investigated.
Author: Niklas Lindahl
Research has shown that the number of media channels for persuasion and persuasive messaging has increased tremendously in recent years, and increasingly changed in character. Rosengren (2008) used the term "media clutter" for the vast and increasing amount of competing commercial messages that consumers are exposed to daily. Fischer erl al. (20111) wrote a review on the issued of the changing character of persuasive messaging from a wide perspective, not just outright advertising, but through all forms of value- strong media statements. The entity persuasion in the persuasive messaging discussed here is a process through which one party aims to affect the attitudes, values, and/or behaviour of one or several other parties (Perloff, 2010).
Author: Mattias Svahn
The construction work for a technical solution to deal with the consequenses of tidal variations on the wave power plant, known as tidal comPensator, has been completed. A prototype fo the tidal compensator has been produced together with an experimental setup set up in the experimental hall of the Department of Electricity at Uppsala University. The project has contributed to a PhD thesis (1) and a number of scientific articles on the effect from tides on the studied wave power technology, technical solutions to overcome these effects and economic studies of the value of such a technical solution (2-5).
Author: Rafael Waters
This feasibility study investigates concepts for miniaturized sample handling. Sample handling in miniaturized systems is difficult and rarely addressed in the research. A key to success of this project is our technology for miniaturized high-pressure flow systems. The primary application is sample handling for a miniaturized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for analysis of pollutants in water. The results will be used in subsequent projects for further research and development. The project has been carried out at the Department of Microsystems Technology at the Ångström Laboratoy, Uppsala University. The project resulted in a thousand-fold sample concentration using a miniaturized evaporator. Furthermore, supercritical carbon diozide is an efficient and environmentally friendly solvent and the project has successfully explored the possibility of using it in a miniaturized system for both sample extraction and concentration. The system is a miniaturized flow system made of glass to withstand the extraction and concentration. The system is a miniaturized flow system made of glass to withstand the high pressures needed to keep the carbon dioxied supercritical and allow for optical access. The project has investigated the pressure resistance of the chip as well as integrated sensors for temperature and flow - impportant parameters for the flow system. The project results are signifcant for further research towards a complete system for sample handling.
Author: Roger Bodén
Graphene is an important material which is currently considered for applications in nanoelectronics. However, its zero band gap enders it unsuitable for the latter applications. The approach presented in this report could potentially lead to band gap opening. These methodologies involve π-bond breakage between sp2 carbonds and formation of C-H, C-Si. What makes this approach different is the avoidance of using metal catalysists and/or hard conditions e.g. high temperature or pressure. As we have further shown this approach also allows for use of solar light provided that the light intensity is high enough.
Author: Rafail Papadakis
As the portion of energy produced by intermittent sources, such as wind or solar power, increases, other sources are required to withstand cyclic operation to a degree for which they in particular in higly stresses areas such as gas turbine blade fixings. The project has investigated the microstructure formed in the fir tree slots machined by broaching i a Ni-Fe based superalloy turbine disc material using a number of state-of-the-art high-resolution techniques, with the aim to explain the formation of the surface layer, and its evolution during service-like thermal exposures. The aim is to provide knowledge that can be linked to the integrity of the broached surfaces during operation, and thus facilitate development of new or improved materials and/or processes for optimised fatique resistance. The structure of the nano-crystalline surface layer, with extremely small, anisotropic hardening particles, have been investigated in unprecedented detail, and the mechanism for its formation have been determined. During service-like exposure, the microstructrure evolves in a very complex manner, where growth of secondary phases significantly influences the local chemistry, leading to dissolution of hardening precipitates. This information has not been previously available, and points to a new line of research for optimising the properties of fatuque sensitive surfaces in Ni-Fe based superalloys.
Author: Magnus Hörnqvist
Author: Ivan Miljavic
A novel type of metal ion source based on gasless sputtering has been design. It will uniquely combine pure, high metal ion currents with equipment portability and can therefore be used in combination with other processes on many different machines. This way metal ion processing for sputtering, subplantation, and surface texturing is facilitated also for existing conventional laboraty thin film equipment. The most attractive design, considering performance and features versus cost and safety, is a three-grid 10kV acceleration unit mounted on a Conflat 160 flange. Peak current for singly charged ions would be up to 10A and an implantation depth in excess of 10 nm is possible. Such units could be useful in many settings, some examples being to make low-defect metal coatings for high tempterature stability conductors and quantum computers, highly ordered superconducting materials and to make implantations to mitigate bacterial growth on medical implants. Due to its modular and very flexible design approach it is also a very interesting pedagogic tool for accelerators as well as surface technology. The mechanical design was made by Carl-Johan Englund, the electronic parts by Petter Larsson, and the project was coordinated by Joakim Andersson with great help and inspiration from Ian Brown.
Author: Joakim Andersson, Ian Brown, Carl-johan Engulnd, Petter Larsson
As the share of variable renewables - wind and solar PV - is expected to grow significantly in coming decades, it has become increasingly important to account for their intermittency in large scale energy models that are used to explore long term energy futures. In this paper we propose and evaluate one method for doing so, namely, resource based slicing. In addition we implement storage based on possible transitions between slices which allows us to expore new dynamics between intermittent generation and electricity storage in large scale models. Our preliminary results show that this approach manages to capture many aspects introduced by variable renewables such as need for flexible generation capacity and curtailment at high penetration levels. We show that adding electricity storage to the system will favour solar power but has only a minor effect on wind and nuclear power.
Author: Mariliis Lehtveer, Niclas Mattsson, Fredrik Hedenus, Martin Soini
Alkali metals (Li, Na, K and Cs) have been studied as possible candidates for passivation of surface and interfaces between dielectric materials and silicon carbide (SiC). The main emphases have been on diffusion of alkali metals in SiC. Further, the mobility of alkali metals at interfaces between dielectrics/SiO2 and SiC has been investigated. The result of the project gives insight in the limitations for the usefulness of alkali metals in combination with SiC. The alkali metals are more mobile than expected in SiC. As the mass increases from lithium to cesium the diffusivity decreases, as expected. Among the alkali metals it is only cesium that shows negligible diffusion at typical device provess temperatures. If only the mobility in SiC is of concern, cesium is the best candidate. However, a high mobility of cesium in SiO2 indicates that it may be necessary to avoid all alkali metals if SiO2 are used as dielectric material. Additional, Al2O3 has been used as an alternatibe dielectric for SiO2. Life time measurements have been performed indicating that the surface preparation may be as important as the choice of dielectric material for isolation. This project is a first attempt and further effort on the passivation issue is needed.
Author: Margareta Linnarsson
The project is about developing new materials and a new method for production of solar cells for building integration and the project also contains simulations of the energy production from solar cells integrated in the roof and walls in a building. The project started 2014 and has been very successful. The new solar cell production method by a new spray deposition system, has been constructed and verified to work very well and has been further developed during 2015. For lead pervoskite solar cells with an electron transport layer prepared by spraying, we have achieved over 15% power conversion efficiency during autumn 2015, which is a very high efficiency for a perovskite solar cell prepared in air, without protective atmosphere. We have during 2015 discovered a new more environmental friendly perovskite based on bismuth (Bi) instead of environmental friendly (lead free) perovskite working in the solar cell. Using this new bismuth-pervoskite, Cs3Bi2l9, we have also developed the spray technique and we are currently investigating the growth of the bismuth perovskite in a controlled way by heating the substrate at a specific temperature at the same time as spraying the liquid. We are now optimizing the material and spraying parameters to obtain an efficient solar cell. From the collaboration with ÅF we have also simulated the use of building integrated solar cells and compared solar cells on roof and on walls and the results show that integration of solar cells in walls will be specifically important to cover demand on electricity during winter, mornings and evenings without large seasonal storage systems. Especially the results show that solar cells integrated in walls gives higher electricity production in the mid-winter compared to rooftop solar cells, which is very important for a balanced energy system. We have also integrating the new perovskite solar cells in this simulation model, which we will use to study the advantages and drawbacks with the perovskite solar cells comparated to the silicon based solar cells in building applications. We have compared the energy usage in a real office building with the solar electricity from a simulation model, where we have integrated perovskite solar cells in the building facade and roof. The results show that the solar energy produced from the solar cells at different times during the day matches the energy usage very well during summer, spring and autumn. The collaboration between the research group and ÅF has been very fruitful. The discussions about both the applied solar cell installations, simulations and the solar cells on a research level have given insight in possible new future directions of development of both research and applications.
Author: Erik Johansson
For the globally active brand owner companies there are many problems and shortcomings associated with corrugated board boxes. One reason for this situation is the lack of uniform performance standards and guidelines. The feasibility study aimed at giving directions for future development of test methods and guidelines for currugated board packaging that are based on the real needs of the exporting industry. The project consisted of mapping of demands, mapping of existing test methods, and case studies as well as analysis of gaps and needs. Some areas found to be lacking and in need of further development were effects of vibrations and shocks on stacking strength, effects of design (e.g. perforations), and effects of creep and varying climate. Future work should aim at providing standards and especially guidelines on how to use standards and specifications. Different guidelines for generalists and specialists should be considered. The generalist would need checklists and instructions on what a minimum specification should include. The specialist would need more technical guidelines on effects of e.g. water, humidity and creep, and on how properties of papers, board and boxes could be translated to package.
Author: Thomas Frost, Johan Alfthan
The goal of the project was to investigate the use of ink-jet printing technology to manufacture thermal infra-red detectors. With very low cost detectors new application areas could open up, such as integrating detectors directly on packages and similar. In the project, the polymer SU-8 was successfully ink-jet printed on plastic and Silicon substrates, showing that it should be possible to use ink-jet technology to manufacture thermally insulating membranes. In the project, bolometer structures were successfully printed using nano particle silver ink. However, the temperature coefficient, the change in resistance with temperature, was determined to not be high enough. Especially for low cost applications the thermally isolated substrate that is needed would much likely also have lower performance to cut costs. Therefore the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS was instead evaluated. It was shown that the resistance as well as the polymer PEDOT:PSS was instead evaluated. It was shown that the resistance as well as the temperature coefficient of PEDOT:PSS could be increased by using photo paper as substrate instead of plastic. This was attributed to salts in the paper coating. It is previously known that reducing PEDOT:PSS will lead to higher resistivity. It was also shown that the temperature coefficient could be further increased by coating the paper with a NaC1 solution before printing the PEDOT:PSS bolometers. The highest temperature coefficient achieved for PEDOT:PSS was -0.013 on NaC1 coated paper. For the silver nano particle ink bolometers the highest value was 0.0009. The printed polymer membrane and PEDOT:PSS structure show that it is feasible to manufacture deteectors with ink-jet technology, although more development is needed.
Author: Henrik Andersson
The project concern a development of multilayer SiC-graphene composite material for application in reactors' nuclerar fuel cladding in order to improve its safety and performance.
Author: V Dykin, D Jang, C Lau, H Nylén and M Thuvander
Glass is indispensable and innovative material that has plenty of applications. It is an essential component of numerous products that we use every day, most often without noticing it. Glass is widely used in a variety of applications e.g. housing and buildings, automotive and transport, containers, drinking vessels, displays, insulation and optical fibers due to its universal forming ability, transparency, chemical durability, form stability, hardness relatively low price and possibility of recycling. Flat glass is a widemarket of the glass industry and generally ninety percent of all tlat glass produced worldwide is manufactured using the float forming process. There is a large market strive for thinner and stronger glass in order to reduce costs, save energy, and to find new applications. This study comprises the modification of flat/float glass surface by novel oxynitride thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N and Ca-Si-N systems prepared by RF magnetron sputtering technique. The aim of this work is to develop a novel process in order to improve the mechanical and optical properties of flat/float glass by deposition of external materials e.g. alkaline earth metals and nitrogen to the surface in a process with the obvious potential to be automatic in industrial processes. Both mechanical and optical properties of the glass surface have been improved by the deposition of thin films. The float glass surface modified with Mg-Si-O-N have high value of hardness of 20 GPa, elastic modulus of 175 GPa and refractive index value of 1.96 compare to the float glass having hardness of 7 GPa, elastic modulus of 72GPa and refractive index of 1.50. The method presented here is anticipated to be used in production in the future and would make it possible to produce larger quantities of strong flat glass for smartphone, tablet covers and display technology to a considerably lower cost.
Author: Sharafat Ali, Bo Jonsson, Per Eklund, Jens Birch
The internal surfaces of thermal power plants become covered withg deposits from the combusted material (fuel) as well as a gradual build-up of various corrosion products. The formed layers are highly complex in composition and structrue, varying depending on the alloy, temperature, type of fuel, etc. The elements present in the deposited layers affect the corrosion processes and thereby the service lifetime of the boilers. In order to better understand these corrosion processes, compositional depth profiling (CDP) of the layers is very valuable analytical information. A radio frequency (RF) Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) method has been developed for quantitative depth profile analysis of these surface deposits. Some of the major elements of interest are CI, S, Ca, Na and K, and there are no commercially available solid reference materials (RM) with mass fractions in the range found in these materials. It was therefore necessary to produce dedicated RM's for calibration. The method devised within the project was to spray salt solutions onto steel substrates and subsequently dry these, producing coating of well-known composition for calibration. The average thicknesses (or rather coating weigh/are) of the coatings were determined by weighing the samples before and after deposition. This method was shown to work satisfactory. A comparison with SEM cross section images have also shown that the in-depth structure of the depth profiles qualitatively agree well with the observed structure in the images. However, the analytical wok has also shown that some of these types of materials are "difficult" to analyse by GD-OES, in the sense that the plasma discharge tends to be unstable. It should therefore be noted that not all materials of this type will be amenable to GD-OES analysis. Comparing some field exposures of 16Mo3 and 310S it has been shown that differences in corrosion mechanisms can be deteced with the GD-OES method. By observing the positions in the depth profile of primarily K and CI, the ability of a material to withstand corrosion can be deduced. The GD-OES method developed is a valuable analytical tool in continued research on the corrosion properties of thermal power plants, as wlll as th chemical processes responsible for this corrosion.
Author: Annika Talus, Arne Bengtson, Mats Randelius and Rikard Norling
In collaboration with SwereaKIMAB, manufacturers/contractors and building owners, the Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute is conduting an SBUF project concerning parking decks. The purpose of the project is to develop a basis for how a parking deck should be designed with regard to floor coverings on concrete. The resistance to studded tires is here of great importance. This report focuses on relevant methodology for simulating the kind of studded tire traffic that occurs on parking decks in Nordic countries. Field test application of nine different coating systems has been carried out on a garage concrete fllor in Kville, Gotheburg. Test slabs have been applied in connection with the work in site, for testing ear resistance in the laboratory. Laboratory tests are conducted for all systems according to three different methods, and evaluated. The focus of this resport is on the development and modification of methodology based on prEN 12697-50 (Resistance to scuffing). Laboratory testing was carried out at ISAB Institute in Aachen, with the coating system applied to concrete slabs. Results so far show that the method is promising for testing the wear resistance of coating systems intended for use on concrete parking decks, and differentiates well between products.
Author: Ylva Edwards
Glass is a common material in the everyday life. It is widely used in a variety of applications e.g. architetural, automotive, containers, drinking vessels, displays, insulation and optical fibers due to its universal forming ability, transparency, chemical durability, form stability, hardness and relatively low price. flat glass is a wide market of the glass industry and generally ninety percent of all flat glass produced worldwide is manufactured using the float forming process. There is a large market strive for thinner and stronger glass in order to reduce costs, save energy, reduce environmental footprint, find new applications and to improve the working environment for labour working with mounting flat glass. This study comprises the modification of flat/float glass surface by a novel route; exchange of ionic species originating from in-line vapour deposition of salt compared to the conventional route of immersing the glass in molten salt baths. The aim of this work is to develop a novel process in order to improve the mechanical strength of flat/float glass by introducing external material to the surface in a process with the obvious potential to be automatic in industrial processes. Chemical strengthening has been performed by applying potassium chloride to the glass surface by vapour deposition and thermally activated in exchange. The method presented here is anticipated to be used in production in the future and would make it possible to produce larger quantities of chemically strenghtened flat glass to a considerably lower ost.
Author: Stefan Karlsson
The goal of the project was to investigate the use of ink-jet printing technology to manfacture thermal infra-red detectors. With very low cost detectors new application areas could open up, such as integrating detectors directly on packages and similar. In the project, the polymer SU-8 was successfully ink-jet printed on plastic and Silicon substrates, showing that it would, be possible to use ink-jhet technology to manufacture thermally insulating membranes. In the project, bolometer structures were successfully printed using nano particle silver ink. However, the temperatur coefficient, the change in resistance with temperature, was determinhed to not be high enoguh. Especially for low cost applications the thermally isolated substrate that is needed would much likely also have lower performance to cut cost. There the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS was instead evaluated. It was shown that the resistance as well as the temperature coefficient of PEDOT:PSS could be increased by using photo paper as substrate instead of plastic. This was attributed to salts in the paper coating. It is previously known that reducing PEDOT:PSS willl lead to higher resistivity. It was also shown that the temperature coefficient could be further increased by coating the paper with a NaCl solution before printing the PEDOT:PSS bolometers. The highest temperature coefficient achieved for PEDOT:PSS was -0.013 on NaCl coated paper. For the silver nano particle ink bolometers the highest values was 0.00009. The printed polymer membrane and PEDOT:PSS structure show that is is feasible to manufacture detectors with ink-jet technology, although more development is needed.
Author: Henrik Andersson
Author: Ladislav Bardos
The project resulted in successful synthesis and investigation of novel material Y-In-N (both experimental and theoretical), the knowledge obtained about the growth process and material properties will lead to new projects in the fututre. YxIn1-xN with x=0.00, 0.09, 0.15, 0.24, 0.28, 0.40, 0.53, 0.69, and 1.00 were preparated to cover full compositional range. In-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters were measured and compared with the calculations, and the match is very good. This confirms the formation of solid solution. By introducting low amounts of Y, the stability of the parasitic zinc blende phase is decreasing faster than for desired wurtzite crystal structure. We confirmed this experimentally; with up to 15% yttrium, the zinc blende phase is no longer detected using X-ray diffraction and crystal quality of the material improves tremendously. At higher concentrations, however, the crystalline structure of the material becomes more disordered, as expected from the theoretical predictions. Piezoelectric properties of this material were calculated as well, and we sww that both piezoelectric coefficients e33 and d33 is increasing more than 400%, and is comparable to recently published data on better investigated Sc-A1-N. The collection of measurement data have led to publication of a scientific paper in 2015.
Author: Agne Zukauskaite
Med dagens tempo och informationslöde måste kunden snabbt förstå och kunna ta beslut i projekteringsfrågor. Det innebär att dagens konsulter måste vara mer snabbfotade och samtidigt kunna leverera attraktiva och lättbegripliga produkter/tjänster. Inom arkitektur har VR-tekniken revolutionerat presentationsmöjligheterna, dessa gör att beställare direkt förstår hur miljön kommer att se ut och medför en större möjligheter att påverka t.ex. sin blivande arbetsplats. Auraliseringar, d.v.s. datorsimulering av ljudmiljöer, har länge funnits tillgängliga inom akustikvärden. Problemet är att de programvaror som erbjuder dessa möjliheter inte har kunna erbjuda ett visuellt attraktivt resultat, dessutom krävs programvaran vid uppspelning vilket kraftigt begränsar dessa potentionella användning. Med den nya teniken kan man erbjuda auraliseringar av den blivande ljudmiljön i samma gränssnitt som högupplösta 3D-modeller i ett gränssnitt som enklare och bättre kan hjälpa kunden.
Author: Daniel Lindforss, Klas Hagberg
This project focuses on detailed studies of how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by the concrete micro- and mesostructure. The aim is to increase knowledge of how critical parameters affect the cracking process and how this is related to the material's macroscopic properties. During this project a methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scale levels has been developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation and Acoustic Emission. After the tets, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy. As a comparison the cracking process in direct tensile tests at the macro scale was also studied. The crack characteristics identified by DIC, AE and microscopy show clear similarities in the cracking process at meso level between the direct tensile tests and the tensile stage tests. This suggests that the cracking process observed at meso scale in the tensile stage testing is representative of the cracking process in the larger specimens. The test series in the present project included four different concrete recieps. The concretes had a w/c of about 0.38 or 0.9 and fine aggregate (< 8 mm) of natural or crushed felsic rock material. The analysis of fracture in tension show that there are more secondary fractures branching out from the primary fracture with crushed aggregate. There are, however, more diagonal fractures in samples with natural aggregates. It can be seen that propagating secondary craks often stop or are with crushed aggregate. As the diagonal secondary fractures have partly grown in shear, flaky particles may act through interlocking.
Author: Mathias Flansbjer
III-nitride-based hybrid heterostructures for light emitting diodes (LED) combine advantages of epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum wells (QW) with inexpensive polymers or colloidal nanoparticles having efficient fluorescence in the visible region. Such hybrid LED are promising for fabrication of low-cost and highly efficient microlight sources that can be used in full-color displays, imaging systems, miniature chemical and biological sensors. The light is down converted in the typical organic/inorganic GaN-based LED hybrids from UV emission to visble via common radiative energy transfer. The aim of the project was to develop a novel class of hybrid structures utilizing a non-radiative (Förster) resonant energy transfer (NRET) from excitation generated in inorganic QWs to excitons in organic films. According to theoretical predictions such hybrids might be considerably more efficient compared to their radiative analogues. Within the project several hybrid structures have been fabricated and studied. Both green polyfluorene and colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have been used for deposition as a fluorescent film on the top of AIGaN/GaN QW structures. The top layer AIGaN thickness has to be less than 4 nm to allow a dipole-dipole interaction and, thus, an efficient pumping energy transfer even at room temperatures.
Author: Galia Pozina
Over the last decades, relining of pipes in buildings has become an alternative to the traditional pipe replacement. Relining is less expensive, less time consuming and causes less disturbance for the residents, compared to pipe replacement. However, questions have been raised whether or not relining is a reliable method, and if the long term performance is good enough to motivate the method. Also, the health and environmental effects have been discussed. The first part of this report is a summary of the current status of relining in Sweden. Secondly, experimental work has been performed in order to assess the status of relined pipes, which have been in service for up to 12 years. Typical failures are described and the mechanical performance is investigated. Finally, laboratory exposures were conducted to assess the two materials performance under hars conditions; to predict service reliability and to correlate to the field test. The study shows that the materials maintain their mechnical properties when exposed up to 60 degreees, and that degradation is taking place when the material is exposed to water at 80 degrees. During relining, it is import to assure that the material thickness is sufficient and that curing is complete.
Author: Petter Bergsjö
The aim of the project has been to investigate the influence from defects on cast aluminium components strength with photogrammetric methods. The project has partly been focused on how heat treatment and chemical treatment affects the strength and how defects can be avoided at the design stage for defect-free (minimized defect) goods. In the design optimization process casting simulation software has been used and part of the project has been focused on finding suitable physical parameters for the plaster mould cast method used at Hackås Precision Foundry. It is well-known that the defects have a detrimental effect on the strenght of a cast component but not widely documented how this negative impact "looks*". In this project in situ measurement during tensile tests has demonstrated how strain concentrations around different types of defects occur. The project also aimed to increase foundrymen and casting designers understanding of how various defects influende the product's strength and urability in operation and how defects can be avoided by optimizing the casting deisgn in the design phase
Author: Peter Vomacka
Optical fiber sensors are attractive due to the small size of the optical fiber enabling embedding of the sensor with minimal influence on the external parameter to be measured. In addition optical fiber sensors enable optical readout (fast), multiplexing capabilities as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and noise. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are wavelength specifics filters, fabricated in optical fibers by exposure to intense ultraviolet (UV) light. By exposing the fiber using an interferometric setup a periodic refractive index perturbation can be created. Light in the fiber having a wavelength twice that of the refractive index modulation period, mulltiplied by the average refractive index of the glass, will resonantly interact with the structure, resulting in strong back reflection, i.e., Bragg reflection. This project targets optical fiber sensors and FBGs for high-temperatur applications regarding their ultimate limit of stability. To better understand the underlying mechanisms that govern the stability, and ultimately their reliability, a system for material studies has been enabling various experiments to be performed on optical fibers at elevated temperature. The central part of the project has been the development of a CO2-laser based furnace resulting in minimal thermal gradients along the heated fiber. Beam shaping to provide a top-hap profile has been the main approach for heating, inclulding muiltiple-beam exposure. Preliminary results show a significant improvement in comparison with traditional resistance furnaces, providing more possibilites and a much higher degree of control of experimental parameters.
Author: Michael Fokine, Patrik Holmberg
The development of new environmentally friendly power sources has been under consideration all over the world. One such technological direction has been the research around hybrid vehicles batteries, which also might lead to new starter batteries. The 1996 invention of a new class of ceramics; The Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases; where M stands for an early transition metal, A for the A-group (usually IIA and IVA) and X which is either nitrogen or carbon - seems to posses many characteristics useful in that or possibly other battery applications. At KTH the old dream of the bipolar lead-acid battery has been connected to this new material. However, the formation of an irreversible deactivating protecting film on the surface of one such studied specimen: titanium silicon carbide when used as positive electrode, and also the low hydrogen over potential on the negative electrode made the project two steps further from realization. The two first project stages reported here dealt successfully with these obstacles which clearly showed that the new material can be used as a conductive and electrochemically stable partition in the lead-acid environment. The remaining work to be done has to prove the expected durability of a practical battery with the new material as well as finding ways to minimize the wall thicknesses in order to lower material costs in this new battery type.
Author: Christopher Sylwan
Within complex high risk industries, a number of incidents and accidents have occured where the causes and the originations of the events cannot be attributed to technological aspects and factors alone. For these events flaws in an organzation's safety culture are instead often mentioned to have eroded and weakened the safety culture and the risk awareness of the socio-technical system, over time creating the necessary conditions for an accident/incident to happen. Organisations have therefoire, in different ways, implemented safety culture interventions to address flaws in the safety culture, often as a reactivitely response after an accident has happened. Both the industry and regulatory authorities have confimed that these interventions, in a general term, have shown effect and strengthened the safety culture. Thus a challenge enters for the industry - and a fear from the regulatory authorities - that the safety culture can degrade to the level prior to the interventions/accident/incident. A question then arises of how a safety culture can endure over time.
Author: Niklas Grahn, Lotta Peacock
The work conducted in the ÅForsk sponsored project focus on 1) cyber security modeling, 2) flexibility analysis of holostic system-of-systems, 3) automatic data collection for these types of models and 4) reference architectures for complex industrial systems.
Author: Robert Lagerström
ÅF har arbetat med studier av telekonflikter och störskyddsfunktionalitet under flera decennier. Fram till åttiotalet handlade det vanligtvis om att analysera smalbandiga analoga radiosystem med en begränsad geografisk spridning. Utvecklingen inom radioområdet har därefter gått mot radionät uppbyggda av bredbandiga, digitala radiosystem, dessutom har antalet mobila radiosändare ökat dramatiskt under de senaste åren. En del problemställningar återkommer i olika uppdrag och det blir allt tydligare att en utveckling inom analysområdet måste ske.
ÅF har sedan ett antal år drivet ett projekt "Radioanalys", där metoder för olika typer av analyser och mätningar av radiosystem ses över och utveckling. Inom ramen för detta projekt har nu en studie kring telekonflikt och metoder för att analysera detta genomförts. Detta studieuppdrag haf haft som mål att fastställda de behov som finns för att även i framtiden kunna göra korrekta analyser av telekonflikter. Följande behov har identifierats; utöka befintligt modellbibliotek med modeller som bättre kan hantera moderna och framtida systemparametrar och modulationsformer, förbättra användargränssnittet i ÅFs nuvarande mjukvaruverktyg för att beräkna telekonflikter samt dokumentera tillvägagångssätt där kombinationer av olika verktyg och metoder har använts för att kunna utföra träffsäkrare konfliktbedömningar.
Inom ramen för de identifierade behoven har visst arbete gjorts som även det redovisas i denna rapport. Främst har analys av modeller och vidareutveckling av ÅFs befintliga mjukvaruverktyg för telekonflitker påbörjats. ÅF har även under denna tidsperiod varit handledare för ett examensarbete inom området. Nägra resultat från detta examensarbete finns beskrivna i denna studie.
Author: Esbjörn Rotander
The acoustics of many indoor areas are today unsatisfactory, which makes it difficult to understand spoken messages as well as messages from voice alarm systems. This can result in safety problems, but also disturb the experience of the event for the visitor, since the acoustics are essential for environmental qualities regarding comfort. The overall project aim is to increase the safety and acoustic comfort in large indoor arenas.
Author: Philip Zalyaletdinov, Matti Sarne, Björn Hellström, Amir Farhadian-Langroudi
Numerous people die every year from toxic smoke emitted in fires. Carbon monoxide is thought to be the most important individual factor, the contribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) probably being severly underestimated. HCN is emitted from many modern materials when they catch fire, including furniture polstered with polyurethane foam. Cyanide poisoning may alise arise from terrorist attacks and in industrial handling of cyanides. Cyanide poisoning is life threatening and antidote treatment has to be initiated rapidly. At present, however, there is no way of rapid diagnosis of cyanide poisining.
Author: Gunnar Johansson