Forskningsrapporter

Arkiv
Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
13-356
CBI Betonginstitutet
Ny metodik för utvärdering av slutstyrka hos beläggningar i parkeringshus
2013
Sammanfattning

In collaboration with Swerea KIMAB, manufacturers/contractors and building owners, the Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute is conducting an SBUF project concerning parking decks. The purpose of the project is to develop a basis for how a parking deck should be designed with regard to floor coverings on concrete. The resistance to sudded tires is here of great importance. This report focuses on relevant methodogoy for simulating the kind of studded tire traffic, that occurs on parking decks in Nordic countries.

Författare: Ylva Edwards

13-357
CBI Betonginstitutet
Aggressiv miljö för betong i kompost- och biogasanläggningar kräver speciella skyddsåtgärder
2013
Sammanfattning

In collaboration with SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, manufacturers/contractors and plant owners, the Swedish Cement and Concrete Research institute is conducting a Vinnova project concerning concrete protection in biological treatment plants.- The purpose of the project is to develop av basis for how biological treatments plants should be designed with regard to protection coverings on concrete.

Författare: Ylva Edwards

18-446
ÅF Infrastructure AB
Balkongers bullerdämpande effekt
0
Sammanfattning

En vanligt förekommande bullerdämpande åtgärd för flerbostadshus är att man utrustar balkonger med akustiskt täta räcken i kombination med absorbenter i balkongtak. Om högre ljuddämpning behövs används även delvis inglasning (högst 75%) utöver de tidigare åtgärderna. Vad den egentliga ljuddämpande effekten är när man tillämpar dessa åtgärder är inte självklar. I dagsläget används schablonvärden som tagits fram genom mätningar och av erfarenhet. För att skapa ett gediget underlag och öka säkerheten vid beslut om olika balkongåtgärder för olika situationer föreslås följande forskningsprojekt: Genom numerisk analys undersöka vilka balkongåtgärder ger tillräckligt bullerdämpning för att innehålla gällande riktvärden för trafikbuller. Balkongers ljuddämpande effekt har undersökts av flera forskare där man fokuserat på hur de olika balkongelementen i kombination med absorbenter kan reducera ljudnivån inne i balkongen och vid fasaden. Dock saknas forskning kring hur delvis inglasning ytterligare kan öka den ljuddämpande effekten. Detta forskningsprojekt ämnar fylla den luckan genom att använda 3D BEM beräkningar för bandbredden som är relevant för vägtrafik. Metoden kan med hög noggrannhet beräkna diffraktion av balkongräcken även för låga frekvenser för en förhållandevis liten volym som balkonger. Ofta används strålgångsmetoder där noggrannheten är hög för högre frekvenser, men är mindre tillförlitlig för låga frekvenser. En annan lucka i tidigare undersökningar är att fler infallsvinklar för ljudkällan kommer att undersökas. Vanligtvis förenklas problemet genom att ljudkällan (vägen) går parallellt med fasaden. I detta forskningsprojekt kommer utöver ett normalfall där ljudkällan går parallellt med fasad även fall där vägen går ortogonalt med fasad och vid 45 graders vinkel. Detta kommer påverka optimal mängd och placering av inglasning av balkongen vilket kommer utredas och redovisas.

Författare: Kaj Piippo

18-494
Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet
Innovativa tekniker för hållbar hantering av dagvatten i industriell miljö
2018
Sammanfattning

Dagvatten kan hanteras på ett hållbart sätt genom att använda grön infrastruktur. Den gröna infrastrukturen är multifunktionell och reducerar problemen med dagvatten samtidigt som den bidrar med biologisk mångfald, upplevelsevärden, rekreation och bättre livskvalitet i våra städer. Att anlägga gröna ytor på eller intill byggnader är ett sätt att kunna bygga tätt med bibehållna gröna kvaliteter. Generellt har man fokuserat på att anlägga gröna miljöer på bostadshus, kontor och kommunala verksamheter som skolor och förskolor. Det finns lite erfarenheter av hur dessa gröna miljöer kan inkluderas i industriområden. Detta projekt är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan avfallsbolaget NSR och Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet SLU. Projektet fokuserar på hur man kan arbeta med hållbar dagvattenhantering i en industriell miljö genom smart användning av vegetation, teknisk installation och substrat. Målet är att undersöka hur olika installationer kan reducera mängden dagvatten som genereras på en avfallsanläggning med stora hårdgjorda ytor. Själva dagvattnet är problematiskt på anläggningen eftersom det smutsas ner av verksamheterna på platsen och måste renas innan det leds vidare till recipient. Projektet kommer hantera 3 arbetspaket. Det första handlar om hur växternas livsmiljö kan optimeras för att reducera avrinnande vatten. Arbetspaketet kommer undersöka hur växternas effektivitet att hantera dagvatten påverkas av de alternerande blöta och torra perioderna som uppstår i de tunna växtbäddarna och hur smart bevattningsteknik kan användas för att reducera mängden avrinnande vatten. Arbetspaket 2 kommer att undersöka hur vegetationssystem kan byggas i form av växtval och mångfald upp för att maximera avdunstning och resiliens. Arbetspaket 3 tittar på potential för att använda återvunnet material som finns tillgängligt på avfallsanläggning till att bygga upp växtbäddar.

Författare: Tobias Emilsson

18-584
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Smoke control in tunnels with water-based fire suppression systems
2018
Sammanfattning

Urbanization stimulates the wide use of underground space for fast transportation in the cities. The numbers of underground road tunnels, subway tunnels and other railway tunnels are continuously increasing. Meanwhile, complexities of the infrastructure are also increasing, e.g. a roundabout in a tunnel, a metro transfer station connecting more and more lines etc. Despite the relatively low risk for large fires in tunnels, the increasing number of underground tunnels implies that more fire incidents may occur, unless more effective measures have been taken to reduce it. This has forced the authority to reconsider the safety level of the underground tunnels and rethink the use of water-based FFFS in underground tunnels. It has become one of the key active fire protection measures applied in tunnels, especially in important underground urban tunnels. The use of a FFFS in a tunnel has the potential to limit the design fire size, cooling smoke, aid smoke control, prevent fire spread to other vehicles and protecting tunnel users and structure. The reduced fire size and the gas cooling effect of the water sprays can reduce the critical velocity that is required to prevent smoke reverse flow in a tunnel fire. This indicates that the capacity of the designed ventilation system can be reduced accordingly. However, the researches on the smoke control issue in tunnels with FFFS is rather limited and there exists a hug knowledge gap. The objective of this project is to systematically investigate how to control the smoke flows in tunnels with water-based fixed fire fighting systems (FFFS). The work will be conducted based on a large amount of data from model scale and full scale tests that have been carried out by RISE, and by use of advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling.

Författare: Ying Zhen Li

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
18-277
Kungliga tekniska högskolan KTH
Design method against sub-surface rolling contact fatigue
2018
Sammanfattning

Gears and bearings are major load carrying machine elements in the transportation, energy production and manufacturing industries. The life of the elements is primarily limited by rolling contact fatigue. The transportation and energy industries both stand in front of large challenges in the upcoming decades. The transportation industry must reduce its environmental impact with 50% following the Paris agreement to limit global warming to 2 °C while at the same time doubled transportation volumes are forecasted. The solution is a combination of energy efficiency and shift to electric power. Both require increased power density through the transmission system with higher loads on gears and bearing. Following the phase out of fossil and nuclear fuels for electricity production, the energy industry must change to renewable energy sources. Wind and wave energy are two such sources which will become increasingly important. These are however inherently subjected to transient loads with constant risk for overloads on gears and bearings. For gears the costs of improved surface finish with better lubrication conditions will be necessary for the required energy efficiency, higher loads and to avoid surface initiated rolling contact fatigue. When surface initiated rolling contact fatigue is avoided, then the damage initiation point move below the surface and another physical mechanism becomes active and dominating, resulting in sub-surface initiated rolling contact fatigue. The purpose of this project is to find and describe the physical mechanism for sub-surface initiated rolling contact fatigue. Based on the new understanding the goal is to propose an improved design method against sub-surface initiated rolling contact fatigue in contact machine elements such as gears, bearings and cams. The damage hypothesis includes the understanding that in transportation and renewable energy applications the load includes variations that for short intervals may overload the components.

Författare: Bo Alfredsson

18-482
Uppsala University
Emerging Photovoltaics for Ambient Light Applications
2018
Sammanfattning

The field of photovoltaics (PVs) holds the promise of making our buildings ‘‘smart’’ and our portable devices “independent”, if effective energy sources can be developed for use in ambient indoor conditions. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are particularly suited, because of their ability to maintain photovoltage even under dim light condition, outperforming conventional silicon and even GaAs based photovoltaics in power conversion efficiency (PCE). We recently introduced a new DSC design with Cu complexes as a redox relay, which is capable of successfully regenerating dyes at only 0.1 eV. Strikingly, under 1000 lux indoor illumination the PCE is 28.9 %. However, the thermal and chemical stability of DSCs is limited due to the use of liquid electrolytes. In a separate work we discovered that copper coordination complexes can act as efficient hole transport materials (HTMs) in dye-sensitized solar cells. The aim of this project is 1) to introduce a new hole transport material for indoor solid state DSCs (ssDSCs) based on transition metal coordination complexes and 2) to investigate fundamental, mechanistic aspects of solar cells under low/indoor light conditions and 3) to deliver an efficient indoor solar cell system based on ssDSCs using panchromatic sensitizers in conjunction with new copper coordination complexes as HTM. We aim to achieve high efficiency and stability under typical indoor conditions at 200 lux/1000lux with resource efficient materials, to ascertain autonomous operation of a range of electronic devices in an indoor environment. • Introduction of solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSC) specifically for indoor light conditions, based on copper coordination complexes as HTM. • Generation of fundamental and structural understanding of implications on ssDSC under low light conditions. • Performing stability studies with ambient light ssDSC in conjunction with low power devices (i.e. wireless network sensors).

Författare: Marina Freitag

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
13-317
Swerea KIMAB AB
Characterisation of surface deposits and corrosion layers of thermal power plant materials by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES)
2013
Sammanfattning

The internal surfaces of thermal power plants become covered with deposits from the combusted material (fuel) as well as a gradual build-up of various corrosion products. The formed layers are highly complex in composition and structure, varying depending on the alloy, temperature, type of fuel, etc. The elements present in the deposited layers affect the corrosion processes, and thereby the service lifetime of the boilers. In order to better understand these corrosion processes, compositional depth profiling (CDP) of the layers is very valuable analytical information. A radio frequency (RF) Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GD-OES) method has been developed for quantitative depth profile analysis of these surface deposits. Some of the major elements of interest are Cl, S, Ca, Na and K, and there are no commercially available solid reference materials (RM) with mass fractions in the range found in these materials. It was therefore necessary to produce dedicated RM’s for calibration. The method devised within the project was to spray salt solutions onto steel substrates and subsequently dry these, producing coatings of well-known composition for calibration.

Författare: Arne Bengtson

15-433
Linköpings Universitet
MaMiS - Novel defect-engineered nanowire gas sensors with enhanced sensitivity and functionality
2015
Sammanfattning

ZnO nanowires (NWs) are currently considered among the most attractive material systems for gas and chemical sensing. Performance of these sensors is, however, largely affected by intrinsic defects and impurities present in the material and conditions of the NW surface. In this project we explore deliberate defect and surface engineering to enhance performance and functionality of ZnO-based nanosensors. The specific objectives of the project are: (i) to evaluate effects of specific defects and impurities on electrical and optical properties of ZnO NWs by introducing them in a controlled manner; (ii) based on the gained knowledge, to enhance sensitivity and achieve desired gas selectivity by utilizing defect engineering and plasmonic effects.

Författare: Jan Eric Stahr

16-457
Swerea KIMAB
Safe, reliable and cost-effective materials for handling chlorine-containing chemicals in the industry
2016
Sammanfattning

Many of our most commonly used commodity chemicals contain chlorine in some form. These chemicals are often hazardous and corrosive which makes proper material selection a key issue. Finding a safe, reliable and at the same time cost-effective solution is a priority for industries such as chemical plants, pulp and paper mills and water treatment plants. In the presented project, some common, industrial chlorine.containing chemicals have been studied from a corrosion point of view. These chlorine environments are extremely difficult for most metallic materials and common materials choices are instead the plymeric materials PVC or CPVC. However, the deeper understanding of the corrosion process is lacking and due to environmental adaptation of the materials' formulations previously collected corrosion data may be out of date. The goal for this project is therefore to better understand the corrosion process of PVC and CPVC materials in chlorine environments. The results to support users and suppliers of process equipment with a better fundamental understanding about the behaviour of these materials in chlorine environments. Since the welds often are the weakest point of any piping system, the project has also studied the effect of different welding techniques (e.g. treatment of the materials by heat or solvents with the purpose of joining pipes together) on the corrosion resistance of PVC and CPVC materials in chlorine service. The findings are aimed to be of help for users at e.g. chemical plants, pulp and paper mills and within water treatment to make better material choices, better service life predictions and to a safer working environment.

Författare: Karin Jacobson

18-266
Linköpings Universitet
Sustainable high-performance electrochemical capacitors
2018
Sammanfattning

The aim of the project is to explore a practical solution for creating ulthrathin materials for high-performance electrochemical capacitors (also called supercapacitors). It is based on selecting and evolving two materials (MXenes and Porous carbon) for maximizing their adsorption capacity surface and thus drastically improving the performance of the electrochemical capacitors. The rapid advance of materials for supercapacitors is critically conditioned by the size/shape and formation mechanism of pores and related defects. The control of porosity at atomic level, the nature of the pores average size/distribution, and the pores/defects shape in relation to the total specific surface area of ultrathin material, is perceived as the key factor for achieving its efficient supercapacitors. In this project, I will apply the DFT-based modeling method Synthetic Growth Concept that I originated in my group. Within this project, the Synthetic Growth Concept method will be evolved for the target materials: (i) at DFT level, and, (ii) by integrating ab-initio Molecular Dynamics for the benefit of understanding pore evolution. This new knowledge will be used to guide the synthesis of these ultrathin materials in direct synergy with the world-leading team in MXenes and porous carbons for supercapacitors from A.J. Drexel Nanomaterial Institute. The two teams: (i) team at Linköping University (modeling), and (ii) the team at Drexel (synthesis and characterization) led by Prof. Yury Gogotsi (with whom I have an established collaboration) possess unique and complementary competences. The research proposed in this project convincingly exemplifies one of the “hottest” technological issues in current energy research: the supercapacitor market is expected to reach USD 2 Billion in 2017 due to, besides other applications, efficient eco-friendly public transportation (public busses using supercapacitors, currently being implemented in many cities in China and US).

Författare: Gueorgui Gueorguiev

18-279
Linköping University
Two-dimensional Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes) - Next Battery Material?
2018
Sammanfattning

The proposed research project will focus on the synthesis, characterization and property determination of novel niobium-based MXenes indented for high-performance battery electrode applications. The novel composition-modification strategy will by applied to MXenes which offers a potential breakthrough for achieving energy storage enhancement. The project holds the key in expanding the MXene family with addition of the new phases and providing the definite proof of principle in MXenes energy capacity enhancement.

Författare: Justinas Palisaitis

18-281
Mid Sweden University
Transient electronics on cellulose nanopapers
2018
Sammanfattning

My goal with this research proposal is to study the use of cellulosic biomaterials such as cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as substrate for transient electronics and the use of 2D materials and organic biodegradable inkjet inks for the printed electronics. Nanocellulose nanopapers was successfully used as a substrate for electronics but not for transient electronics as we aim with this project. Transient electronics is exactly the opposite of modern silicon electronics that has the goal to last forever. When exposed to water, transient electronics disintegrate at a predictable rate while releasing biologically and/or environmentally benign end products. One can use an electronic component, for instance, as a temporary implant in a patient and allow it to dissolve safely on its own without the need for a second surgery. Ultimately, transient electronics can solve the problem of disposing electronics in a safe and convenient manner reducing electronic waste. Transient electronics could not only revolutionize medicine – but also environmental monitoring and consumer electronics. Sensors to measure key parameters of a chemical spill, transmit data, and then ultimately degrade, leaving no ecological impact are some examples of applications for transient electronics. To print a simple thin film transistors one would need a layer of conductor, semiconductor and insulator. I used 2D materials such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide to produce inkjet inks to print those materials onto flexible substrates such as paper. These materials can be solution processed meaning that they can be exfoliated into very thin layers. In large scale, the techniques used to deposit the inks may vary according to the level of resolution and the volume to be printed. Nanocellulose can be used as the dielectric or insulator layer in this application and the inkjet printed nanomaterials the electric circuit.

Författare: Viviane Forsberg

18-282
Chalmers University of Technology
Developing Superior Ultrahigh-Temperature Alloys than Superalloys (SUTA)
2018
Sammanfattning

The SUTA project aims at developing next-generation ultrahigh-temperature materials. Ultrahigh temperature materials are of critical importance to the aerospace and power-generation industries, as enhancing the operating temperature of turbine engines can greatly improve the fuel efficiency. The search for superior ultrahigh temperature materials than the currently used nickel-based superalloys, has been almost stagnated by the limitation set by conventional alloy design that is based on materials with one principal element, or more specifically, the relatively low melting points of nickel-based superalloys, and the difficulty in reaching the balanced high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance for refractory alloys with higher melting points, such as molybdenum- and niobium-based alloys. Here we will use a paradigm-shifting alloying strategy, to design refractory multi-principal-element alloys as new generation of ultrahigh temperature materials, integrating both experimental studies and theoretical predictions based on computational thermodynamics and electron theory. The project will address to three scientific challenges: 1) designing compositionally complex multi-component alloys, 2) achieving the strength-ductility balance and also 3) achieving oxidation resistance-mechanical properties balance in multi-principal-element alloys via alloy design. The successful implementation of the project will bring unprecedented scientific understanding to the research of multi-principal-element alloys, which is now at the research frontier of metallic materials, and lead to the development of novel ultrahigh temperature materials enabling turbine engines to operate at higher temperatures, with a huge application potential to transportation and energy industries.

Författare: Sheng Guo

18-296
University West
SCC-SuMan – Reduced Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility in Ni-based Superalloys Manufactured by Electron Beam Melting
2018
Sammanfattning

Ni-based superalloys possess excellent combination of mechanical properties and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures; however, grain boundaries of the superalloys are always a source of weakness due to their interaction with gaseous environments. This problem is of particular concern when considering the application of Ni-based superalloys in the hot sections of aero- and land-based gas turbines, in which the components are exposed to corrosive gas streams whilst under high stresses at temperatures in excess of 700°C. Furthermore, operating temperatures are rising markedly due to ongoing fuel efficiency demands and the need to reduce emissions; hence, failure resulted from so-called “stress corrosion cracking (SCC)” is becoming increasing prevalent and is now one of the major limitations to the application of Ni-based superalloys at very high temperatures. The precise mechanism of SCC is contentious, necessitating systematic experimentation and associated characterization at the appropriate length scale to elucidate the underlying physical and chemical factors at play. Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, e.g., electron beam melting (EBM) can be used to fabricate Ni-based superalloys, with the possibility to tailor the microstructure and reduce the risk of SCC, which can be extremely attractive for the gas turbine manufacturers. Therefore, the successive efforts to find a superior resistance to SCC using AM techniques motivate SCC-SuMan. The overall goal of SCC-SuMan is to elaborate the current understanding of the fracture and cracking behavior of load-bearing EBM-manufactured Ni-based superalloys at high temperatures using a desired microstructure that can reduce the risk of SCC.

Författare: Esmaeil Sadeghimeresht

18-300
Linköpings Universitet
Development of two-dimensional materials for a circular economy: a cyclic process for carbon capture, storage and conversion of CO2 to fuels
2018
Sammanfattning

This project will identify the final step for use of two-dimensional MXene materials in a circular economy. This will be accomplished by identifying and optimizing a process window for the controlled release of CO2, captured on the two-dimensional MXene surfaces, the subsequent conversion of CO2 into combustible fuels in the vicinity of H2 and the cyclic use of the MXene.

Författare: Per Persson

18-302
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Higher-symmetric materials for 5G communications (H-Materials)
2018
Sammanfattning

The main goal of H-Materials is to produce a technological breakthrough based on the concept of higher-symmetric metamaterials, to produce highly efficient antenna systems for 5G communications. Mobile communications have evolved rapidly during the last few decades. In order to fulfill the users’ broadband demands, the new generation of mobile communications, 5G, will be deployed after 2020. However, there are a number of technological challenges that must be solved first. In H-Materials, we will focus our attention in the existing challenges to produce efficient antenna systems for the new frequency bands, which are much higher than those of present mobile communications. To overcome this challenge, we will explore the opportunities of new materials with higher symmetries, in which KTH is leading worldwide the research, to provide fully-metallic integrated antenna solutions for the expected 5G frequency bands: Ka- and U-band. These integrated solutions will be intended for base stations, with the support of Ericsson. The ambitioned results at H-Materials are aimed to contribute to situate Sweden as the center of the antenna research in the world for 5G. If H-Materials successes, we will establish the ideal conditions for further development of small and medium size high-tech communications companies in Sweden.

Författare: Oscar Quevedo-Teruel

18-313
Linköping University
Nya organiska material för energilagring
2018
Sammanfattning

The current proposal is an inter-disciplinary research activity at the cutting edge of material sciences, with high potential for innovation. The main expected result of the project is to generate a new class of materials and devices that widens the scope of electronics, as it provides fundamental know-how and tools to inspire the development of next-generation technologies in ways not possible today. Applications within energy harvesting and storage are in focus for the project. In this research project, we propose to develop fast and efficient ionic thermoelectric pseudocapacitors with high specific energy and power. The proposed pseudocapacitor comprises a solid electrolyte, which is the ionic thermoelectric material, in combination with n-doped and p-doped conductive polymers used here as the negative and positive electrodes of the pseudocapacitor, respectively. To reach the overall goal of this project, we have designed three closely linked work packages (WPs). In the first WP, we will develop highly-conductive n-doped polymer electrodes. To this end, we will focus our attention on π-conjugated redox polymers carrying both π-conjugation functionality and redox active sites. Ladder-type polymers such as benzimidazobenzophenanthroline-based polymers are in particular focus for this project. In a second WP, we will develop nanostructured p-doped and n-doped polymer electrodes that function as the cathode and anode of the pseudocapacitor. In WP3, we will make use of solid-state electrolytes to fabricate ionic thermoelectric pseudocapacitor (ITEPC). This device will allow us to convert heat to electrical energy and store it in the pseudocapacitor. This new energy storage technology will allow for regulation and distribution of intermittent sources of power, such as solar energy or human body heat. We also foresee this technology will be essential to the implementation of renewables as a viable and economical alternative to fossil fuels.

Författare: Simone Fabiano

18-314
Swerea IVF
Turning waste into wealth: Development of chitosan/nanocellulose composite fibres
2018
Sammanfattning

Increasing production of goods, promoted by growth of world population, depletes already limited natural resources and results in environmental problems. This requires more sustainable use of the raw materials. Chitosan is a biopolymer, which is derived from chitin, the second most abundant natural polymer in the world after cellulose. Chitin is abundantly present in marine wastes – crustacean shells (e.g., from crabs and shrimps). In view of the great abundance, this material is considered to be extremely underused. This project aims at developing new generation of man-made (regenerated) fibres from chitosan, similarly to regenerated cellulose (e.g., viscose) that is produced from wood. Those new fibres can be potentially used in hygiene products, clothes and other textiles. Chitosan has a very similar chemical structure compared to cellulose, which suggests its huge potential in this field. Efforts to valorise chitosan by producing man-made fibres have been previously reported. In standard conditions such fibres normally reached a tenacity of 10–15 cN/tex, compared to cotton that have 15–40 cN/tex. Moreover, the wet strength of such fibres is poor. By increasing the strength of chitosan man-made fibres, new applications may emerge that will expand the use of this material. We have received evidence at Swerea IVF that incorporation of wood-derived nanocellulose into a spinning solution of chitosan results in enhancement of the fibre mechanical properties. Incorporation of nanocellulose may also enhance stability of the fibres in wet state due to high nanocellulose crystallinity. Considering the recent observations, it is important to investigate and demonstrate further potential of such an approach. In general, this research is very promising for expanding Swedish circular and biobased economy by converting chitin wastes into useful material, as well as by using abundant forest resources as a source of nanocellulose, for the production of novel products.

Författare: Tobias Köhnke

18-317
Uppsala University
Rechargeable Zn aqueous batteries via open-framework compounds
2018
Sammanfattning

This project investigates alternative aqueous Zn-based cells relying on open-framework compounds (e.g. hexacyanometallates) to develop advanced rechargeable battery systems. They are promising candidates to decrease production costs, energy expense and pollution due to manufacturing, while offering interesting voltage outputs for stationary storage of electricity. These cells employ only abundant and safe components (i.e. zinc and iron-based compounds) coupled to mild water-based electrolytes to further limit their environmental footprint and favor materials recycling. The main goals of the project are: • Design of an efficient rechargeable aqueous battery relying on more sustainable materials and processes. • Study of the electrochemical reactions taking place at the electrodes to improve cell performances. • Study and stabilization of their reaction interfaces via treatments of the electrode materials and electrolyte tuning. • Expanding the knowledge on novel Zn-cell systems based on open-framework compounds, with a particular focus on Copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF). • Achievement of a good cycle life to enable 1000 full cycles with contained losses. • Assessment of the overall cell performances and comparison with those of traditional aqueous cell systems. Developing these cells is important because rechargeable metal-ion aqueous batteries are becoming a low-cost, safe and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional technologies, e.g. Pb-acid, Ni-Cd and Ni-MH, which employ toxic materials and strongly acidic or alkaline electrolytes. The aim is to study and stabilize the Zn interface upon reaction with an aqueous electrolyte and CuHCF as cathodic counterpart. This system offers two main advantages: an average discharge potential of 1.7 V and quick charge/discharge without structural degradation. However, its efficiency is still limited by parasitic processes occurring at the Zn interface, which needs to be stabilized via an effective approach.

Författare: Mario Valvo

18-351
Linköping University
Printable Thermoelectric devices for Self-powered Wearable Sensors
2018
Sammanfattning

Wearable biosensors have the potential to revolutionize personal healthcare by enabling continuous monitoring of the wearer’s health state. The increasing market is calling for cheaper, smarter and smaller sensors. However, current commercialized sensors require power from external electric sources or batteries, which limit the portability and comfortability. We propose to solve this important issue by developing self-powered sensors, driven by ionic thermoelectric devices that can convert human body heat into electricity. Conventional thermoelectric generators are based on Bi2Te3 alloys and are not suitable for application in portable and wearable devices due to high rigidity, high density and difficulty in maintaining large temperature differences over the material (due to comparably high thermal conductivity). We aim to circumvent these issues by developing flexible high-performance ionic thermoelectric materials and novel device concepts enabling higher energy density while also being compatible with low-cost processing. We propose to develop novel ionic thermoelectric devices and apply them as power supplies in wearable sensors. In contrast to traditional thermoelectric generators, this new concept can utilize low-cost, printable ionic electrolytes with large Seebeck coefficients (100 times larger compare to traditional materials), which will greatly reduce the cost of per unit energy. The focus of the project is to build self-powered wearable sensors based on ionic thermoelectric modules, and to continue to drive the development of this largely unexplored energy harvesting direction, with high potential to also help solving energy crisis and benefit society.

Författare: Dan Zhao

18-366
Uppsala universitet
Ökad funktionalitet av metalliska material från additiv tillverkning genom ytmodifiering
2018
Sammanfattning

Additiv tillverkning (i dagligt tal kallat 3D-printning) är ett starkt växande fält med många spännande möjligheter. Dels kan man tillverka komponentermed i nya optimerade former, men även skapa nya material genom att i processen styra fastillväxt och mikrostruktur. Ett sätt att tillföra en dimension till designen av material och komponenter är att arbeta med ytan på de 3D-printade materialen. Direkt från tillverkningen har material från additiv tillverkning typiskt en yta med avvikande egenskaper från bulken av materialet, och det finns därmed alltid ett behov för ytbearbetning. Denna ytbearbetning skulle kunna utökas för att ge materialen en utökad funktionalitet. Detta projekt är en förstudie som ämnar undersöka dessa möjligheter, för att sedan kunna gå vidare med mer omfattande studier. Genom ytmodifiering kommer man kunna ge komponenter tillverkade med AM en ökad funktionalitet tex genom att ge ytorna kemisk passivitet eller specifik aktivitet, eller genom att ge dem andra egenskaper än bulken. Projektet kommer utföras i sammarbete med industriell partner, vilket säkerställer att industriellt relevanta system och frågeställningar undersöks. För projektet söks totalt 416 kkr som ska täcka sökandes lön för dennes aktivitet i projektet samt drift.

Författare: Erik Lewin

18-376
Altris
Uppskalning och elektrolyt-screening av Preussisk Vit för användande i natriumbaserad energilagring
0
Sammanfattning

Altris önskar testa skala upp produktionen av ett katodmaterial för natriumjonbatterier samt screena efter den mest lämpliga elektrolyten för detta katodmaterial. Natriumjonbatterier undersöks som ett komplement till Li-jon batterier, framförallt i tillämpningar där stora volymer behövs. Preussisk Vit (PV) är ett katodmaterial för natriumjonbatterier som tappade lite intresse i forskarvärlden pga dess komplexa syntesväg. Nu med en ny enklare syntesväg framtagen och patenterad i Uppsala ses PV åter igen som en kandidat som katodmaterial i natriumjonbatterier. Altris vill därför göra ett snabbprojekt för att validera om produktionsmetoden av PV går att skala upp samt kolla om en screening av de vanligaste elektrolyterna kan ge den prestanda av PV som tidigare har uppvisats i den vetenskapliga litteraturen.

Författare: Tim Nordh

18-385
Lund University
Laser och optisk diagnostik för studier av ytrelaterade processer
2018
Sammanfattning

Ansökan avser ett fakultets‐ och områdesöverskridande projekt, riktat mot att öka förståelsen för katalys samt resor inom projektet. Projektet saknar i dagsläget en lämplig detektor som noga kan synkroniseras med övrig utrustning, för att ta projektet vidare mot viktiga system som t.ex. CO2 hydrogenering och reduktion av kväveoxider. Katalysatorer är ovärderliga i vår vardag. Man räknar med att mer än 80 % av alla industriellt framställda kemikalier utnyttjar katalys, men det är även ett av våra viktigaste verktyg för att reducera miljöfarliga utsläpp, och spara energi. De består ofta av dyra ädelmetaller och för att minimera mängden av det aktiva ämnet eller för att hitta nya kombinationer av andra ämnen krävs en förståelse på atomär nivå. I heterogen katalys sker reaktionerna företrädelsevis på ytan, det innebär att man behöver veta ytornas struktur, hur molekylerna fäster på ytan, vilka reaktioner som ingår mm., men även gasdynamiken runt ytan och hur den fungerar påverkar processerna är mycket viktigt. Det finns ett ytterst begränsat antal studier av gasen nära en aktiv katalysator mestadels pga. trubbiga analysverktyg, men med laser är det möjligt att med hög rums- och tidsupplösning mäta temperaturer, ämneskoncentrationer och flöden. Genom att använda laser kan man komma åt information där traditionella verktyg går bet, och på så vis finna svar på frågor som annars är omöjliga att besvara. Det slutgiltiga målet är att göra samtidiga, rums- och tidsupplösta mätningar av yt- och gasfenomen vid synktrotronljusanläggningar som t.ex. MAX IV. I det föreslagna projektet vill vi fortsätta att konstituera ett nyligen etablerat samarbete där vi för samman kunnande från katalys och ytfysik med laserdiagnostik och optisk mätteknik, två starka forskningsområden vid Lunds universitet, vilket bildar en världsunik konstellation som kan föra utvecklingen inom katalys framåt – en process som blir allt viktigare i ett samhälle där hållbar och energisnål utveckling är framtiden.

Författare: Johan Zetterberg

18-397
Lunds Universitet
Understanding moisture uptake in acetylated wood for durable and sustainable structures
2018
Sammanfattning

An increased use of wood as a construction material is key to decrease carbon dioxide emissions from the construction sector. This use is presently limited by wood’s susceptibility to fungal degradation. Traditionally, the resistance to fungal degradation is improved by impregnation with biocides but alternatives are needed due to environmental and health issues. Instead, chemical modification, i.e. acetylation, can be used, but the exact mechanisms behind the increased durability are not known, except that it is related to the reduced moisture content of the modified wood. However, the fungi’s ability to degrade the wood is not simply determined by the amount of water in the wood; the location and state of the water within the wood structure is also important but much less studied. The aim of the present project is to understand the influence of acetylation on the amount, location and state of water in wood to increase the understanding of the mechanisms behind the increased durability. This will be done by targeted, well-defined modifications and use of unique combinations of methods enabling studies of how the modifications affect water in different parts of the wood structure at moisture levels relevant for fungal degradation.

Författare: Maria Fredriksson

18-419
Göteborgs Universitet
High performant sustainable aluminium lithium-ion batteries
2018
Sammanfattning

Nya anoder kommer att utvecklas för att möjliggöra konceptet aluminium-litiumjonbatterier (Al-LIB), en mer hållbar och kostnadseffektiv design än traditionella LIB, och syftar också till att nå upp till 25% förbättrad specifik energitäthet på cellnivå. För att kunna gå över från fossila bränslen till förnybara källor behövs energilagring i stor skala och till rimlig kostnad. Medan de flesta forskningsinsatser på LIB hittills har inriktats på att nå högsta möjliga energitäthet, så blir kostnader och hållbarhet allt viktigare för alla större applikationer, som elfordon och lagring för elnätet. Här används en ny, kostnadseffektiv tillverkningsmetod av nanodesignade Al-baserade anoder, med hjälp av hållbara material, för att möjliggöra Al-LIBs. Den föreslagna Al-LIB-designen bygger på Al-baserade anoder, dels av Al-folie belagd med AlLi-legeringar och dels av nanostrukturerade tunna filmer av Al och dess Li-legeringar, för att förbättra cykelstabiliteten och effektdensiteten.

Författare: Niklas Lindahl

18-452
Stockholms universitet
Effektiv karakterisering av ytkemiska egenskaper med hjälp av nya kvantkemiska deskriptorer och maskininlärning
2018
Sammanfattning

Förmågan att i förväg förutsäga beteenden hos olika föreningar och material är en hörnsten inom både kemi- och materialvetenskapen. Med hjälp av bland annat kvantkemiska verktyg har vetenskapen nått imponerade framgångar i denna strävan. För att möta framtida utmaningar och krav krävs dock nya innovationer och tillvägagångssätt. Som en del i detta ansöker jag om finansiering för att utveckla nya metoder för att snabbt och effektivt uppskatta molekyl- och materialegenskaper. Dessa kommer vara baserade på en kombination av kvantkemiska metoder för utvärdering av lokala reaktivitetsdeskriptorer och maskininlärningsalgoritmer. Deskriptorena som kommer att användas har nyligen tagits fram och testats av mig och min tidigare handledare (Tore Brinck) och har uppvisat goda förmågor att förutsäga lokala egenskaper hos molekyler, nanopartiklar samt metal- och oxidytor. Genom att använda deskriptorerna kan antalet beräkningssteg (och därigenom resurs- och tidsåtgången) minskas avsevärt. Genom att koppla deskriptorerna till maskininlärningsalgoritmer och referensdataset kommer jag ytterligare kunna snabba upp samt förbättra noggrannheten hos molekyl- och materialegenskapsuppskattningarna. Detta skulle erbjuda förbättrade möjligheter att screena efter och utveckla nya material för exempelvis katalys eller vätgaslagring, eller för framställning av molekyler för läkemedelsindustrin. Det projekt som föreslås omfattar tydliga delsteg för att verifiera deskriptorernas förmågor, göra metoderna allmänt tillgängliga och för att utveckla metoderna med hjälp av maskininlärning. Studierna kommer att utföras under 12 månaders tid vid Stockholms universitet i Lars GM Petterssons grupp. Tack vare nära kontakt med världsledande forskare inom yt- och beräkningskemi hoppas vi effektivt kunna utveckla, testa och sprida våra metoder.

Författare: Joakim Halldin Stenlid

18-461
KTH
Microbatteries fabricated via ultrasound directed self-assembly
2018
Sammanfattning

In this project, we will employ standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) for self-assembly of nanoparticles capable of storing electrochemical energy (e.g. Lithium intercalating salts and transition metal oxide nanoparticles, and carbon nanoparticles) into microbatteries. Ultrasound directed self-assembly with SSAW solves two of the main challenges for the fabrication of microbatteries: 1) The acoustic waves enables controlled mixing of various nanoparticles, including those that are not easily dispersed. 2) the standing waves enable micropatterning of the particles over large areas, and thus offers an alternative for micropatterning of interdigitated electrodes, without the need for photolithography microfabrication, and cleanrooms. SSAW may provide simple and versatile tool for fabrication micrometere-sized electronic components and energy storage devices.

Författare: Mahiar Max Hamedi

18-510
Lund University, LTH
Structural safety of glass components
2018
Sammanfattning

The proposed project involves research that will contribute to solving current (and arising) issue of safety of glass structures. Currently, Europe lacks of standardized guidelines, design approaches or standards (codes for design) dedicated for the design of structural glass components to be used in everyday engineering practice. The main objective of the project is to develop guidelines for the safe design of glass structures. The outcomes of the project will be use by structural engineers in their everyday practice. In addition, the results of the project will extend the current knowledge about impact loads on glass structures, in particular, regarding evaluation of glass structures regarding its safety. This will be based on the analysis of current standards (related to glass), publications and design approaches with close collaboration with industry. The next step will include extensive experimental testing on structural glass components with different fixing systems, types of glass and interlayers. Following, appropriate numerical simulations will be carried out to simulate the performed experiments in order to calibrate the numerical models. The validated models will be further used for parametric studies for different assemblies.

Författare: Marcin Kozlowski

18-511
Swerea KIMAB
Utredning av kloridhaltens effekt på korrosionen hos metalliska material vid höga pH
2018
Sammanfattning

Kännedom om motståndskraften hos olika material med avseende på kloridhalt och temperatur vid höga pH skulle underlätta för processindustrier med dessa miljöer att välja tillräckligt tåliga material, samtidigt som inte onödigt dyra skulle väljas. Detta projekt har som mål att experimentellt utreda tåligheten hos 5 metalliska material i miljöer med höga pH, höga kloridhalter och relativt höga temperaturer, tillika miljöer representativa för pappersmassaindustrins askreningssystem.

Författare: Magnus Nordling

18-513
Swerea KIMAB
Utredning av lämpligheten hos olika konstruktionsmaterial för sodapannors löprännor
2018
Sammanfattning

Löprännorna är några av de mest utsatta delarna för omfattande korrosion och andra typer av skador i en sodapanna, och har vanligen en livstid på ett år. Kostnaden för byte av löprännor ligger på ca 100 000 Skr per löpränna, varför en ökning av livslängden skulle bespara bruken stora kostnader. Detta projekt syftar till att ta reda på om det finns några konstruktionsmaterial som skulle kunna ge löprännor utökad drifttid. Projektet kommer att utföras dels som en erfarenhetsinsamling och litteraturgranskning, men framförallt som en materialexponering i labbmiljö.

Författare: Magnus Nordling

18-519
Uppsala University
Cesium additives for boosted stability of rechargeable batteries.
2018
Sammanfattning

Growing concerns over raw material price fluctuations for lithium ion batteries have led to renewed interest in other ion systems, such as sodium. The specific niche that heavy cation batteries are most suited to is stationary energy storage applications. Here, stability and cycle life are key parameters to be maximised. Preliminary research has shown that Cesium can play a role in the stabilisation of many components in both lithium and sodium ion batteries. This includes improving the ionic conductivity and stability of the SEI layer on graphite and hard carbon, improvement of ionic conductivity in polymer electrolytes and enabling higher capacity retention over many cycles in Prussian Blue electrodes, AxFeIII[FeII(CN)6]. However, to date there has not been a rigorous study to demonstrate and explain the beneficial effect Cs has on improving cycling stability in sodium ion cells (both with standard and polymer electrolyte). This is particularly interesting to perform for cells based on the AxFeIII[FeII(CN)6] positive electrode material as it is one of the most promising environmentally friendly electrodes for stationary energy storage if long term cycling can be guaranteed. The current proposal seeks to explore the influence that Cesium has on both electrochemical performance of sodium cells and to study the stabilising effect Cs has on the AxFeIII[FeII(CN)6] electrode structure, both during synthesis and cycling. The overall aim is to establish how much Cs is necessary to improve cycling stability of sodium cells and establish the feasibility of an all-Cs battery.

Författare: William Brant

18-547
Tekniska Högkolan i Jönköping AB
FullSync4D: Fullfältsanalys av material och defekter i 4 dimensioner med hjälp av synkrotron och tomografi
2018
Sammanfattning

Projektidén för FullSync4D är att ta samarbetet och arbetet ifrån FullCorr till nya dimensioner i flera avseenden. Genom att växla upp samarbetet och tekniken som utvecklats för 2D i FullCorr (FIB-SEM-DIC) vidare till state-of-the-art 3D-materialkaraktäriseringstekniker som synkrotron och tomografi ser vi här en möjlighet att ta Sverige till en världsledande position inom materialkaraktärisering för gjutna material och integrera resultaten in i en unik simuleringsbaserad produktframtagningsprocess för lättviktskonstruktioner i fordonsbranschen. Det övergripande målet med projektet är att möjliggöra en unik beräkningsteknik som tar hänsyn till inverkan av materialdefekter, och integrera detta i den simulerings- och optimeringskedja som utvecklas i det parallella projektet ODISSEE2. För att möjliggöra detta kommer experiment av högsta tänkbara vetenskapliga klass genomföras vid en av världens ledande synkrotron-anläggningar. Detta projekt ger 2 unga forskare, en vid JTH och en vid RISE, en möjlighet att kombinera och utveckla sina kompetenser genom att fortsätta det samarbete som initierades av det av ÅForsk tidigare finansierade FullCorr-projektet, och tillsammans med etablerade ledande forskare inom området ta nästa kliv mot utvecklingen av världsledande kompetens inom såväl materialkaraktärisering som materialmodellering och simulering. Projektet är utformat för att möjliggöra unika experiment som levererar data och resultat till ett parallellt forskningsprojektet som finansieras av KK-stiftelsen och företagen Volvo Cars, SCANIA, Husqvarna AB och Kongsberg Automotive AB. FullSync4D kommer därför göra det möjligt att fånga en unik möjlighet att integrera experiment av världsklass in i ett projekt med industri-tillämpning, och resultaten från projektet kommer kunna gå rätt in i industriella applikationer och snabbt kunna implementeras in i produktframtagningsprocessen hos Sveriges samlade fordonsindustri.

Författare: Jakob Olofsson

18-566
Linköpings universitet
Dopningsmekanismer i nanoporösa material
2018
Sammanfattning

Nanoporösa material är på grund av sin stora yta (~500 – 1000 m2/g) lämpliga som bärare av katalytiskt aktiva material. Nanoporös kiseldioxid har därför använts som bärare av t ex Zr och Zn i katalytiska tillämpningar för grön energi, såsom bildandet av biodiesel från växtoljor eller metanol från koldioxid. Materialen tillverkas via en våtkemisk process där ett metallsalt tillsätts i synteslösningen för att få ett katalytiskt aktivt material. Synteslösningens sammansättning, exempelvis valet av kiselkälla, påverkar katalysatorns effektivitet och selektivitet. Dock är mekanismerna för hur de aktiva materialen binder till kiseldioxiden inte kända. Det aktuella projektet syftar till att in situ studera formationen av nanoporös kiseldioxid när Zr eller Zn tillsätts till synteslösningen. Både Zr och Zn kan användas i esterifiering av växtoljor till biodiesel. En ny metod baserad på IR spektroskopi som ger information of kemiska bindningar i synteslösningen kommer att användas för att studera dopningsmekanismerna. Metoden ger även information om formationshastigheten hos materialet, vilket är av stor vikt om materialet ska växas på ett substrat. Efter syntesen kommer distributionen av, och de kemiska tillstånden hos, metallen i kiseldioxiden att studeras. Därefter kommer materialen att testas i en katalytisk reaktion, esterifiering av ättiksyra med metanol, för att se hur den katalytiska förmågan påverkas av dopningsmekanismen. Slutligen kommer de katalytiskt aktiva partiklarna att växas som en film på en yta. Detta för att det är fördelaktigt ur en tillämpningssynpunkt att ha katalysatorn på en yta jämfört med som ett pulver i olika tillämpningar samt när den ska separeras från reaktanterna. Filmtillväxten påverkas av materialens formationshastighet och olika typer av ytor kommer att användas som substrat för att öka katalysatorns användningsområden. Sammanfattningsvis är projektets syfte att förstå hur formationsprocessen av en katalysator påverkar dess aktivitet.

Författare: Emma Björk

18-579
Uppsala universitet
Mot maximal energitäthet med anodlösa fastfasbatterier
2018
Sammanfattning

Genom omställningen från ett fossilbaserat energisystem till ett baserat på förnybara energikällor så har efterfrågan på effektiv energilagring med hög energitäthet ökat monumentalt. Än så länge har Li-jonbatterier varit den främsta källan till kompakt energilagring, men högre energitäthet än vad denna typ av batterikemi kan leverera är önskvärt inte minst för elektrifiering av fordonsflottan, där högre energitäthet direkt kan översättas i ökad räckvidd. Här har batterier med anod av Li-metall lyfts fram som den batterikemi som erbjuder den högsta energitätheten på anodsidan - 10x högre än för dagens grafitanoder. Sanningen är dock att ännu högre lagringskapacitet kan fås i en sådan battericell om Li-metallen helt enkelt tas bort. Ett sådant "anodlöst" batteri innehåller inget överskott av Li, utan förlitar sig på det Li som finns lagrat i katoden, som vid uppladdning pläteras på anodsidans strömsamlare. Detta kräver en elektrolyt som långsiktigt kan leverera (1) hög laddningseffektivitet, (2) hög stabilitet i kontakt med Li-metall och (3) motstånd mot dendritbildning vid plätering av Li-metall. Allt detta kan polymerelektrolyter leverera. Detta projekt syftar till att utveckla polymerelektrolyter som kan ge hög laddningseffektivitet vid plätering av Li-metall och applicera dessa i långsiktigt stabila Li-batterier med anodlös konstruktion som därigenom får extremt hög energitäthet.

Författare: Jonas Mindemark

18-580
Linköping University
Advanced techniqie for effective solar energy utilization
2018
Sammanfattning

The purpose of this grant application is to develop a flat thin lens in form of a thin film for concentrating solar energy on a photovolatic panel. The distinctive feature of this concentrator is its predefined spectral and spatial selectivity coupled with beam splitting. The lens will be based on a quasi-periodic arrangement of a transparent dielectric material. The work will include an exhaustive theoretical study of periodic and quasi-periodic complex-structured media as well as an experimental part involving fabrication of samples. Special attention will be paid to exploring the light trapping and non-mechanical sun tracking system based on the structures to be developed. Among the materials to be studied will be 1) AlInN nanorods; 2) cholesteric liquid crystal polymers; and 3) holographic gratings based on photopolymers (azo dyes). We expect that in addition to study in material science and solar energy utilization will make the work a good background for farther commercial implementations.

Författare: Sergiy Valyukh

18-585
Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
Metoder för hållbar design av pappersmaterial och pappersbaserade strukturer
0
Sammanfattning

Material har alltid en viss grad av slumpmässighet i sina mekaniska egenskaper. Detta är särskilt uttalat för ”oordnade material” som tunna fibernätverk av vilka pappersprodukter tillverkas. Slumpmässighet i materialet kan ses som en av de viktigaste orsakerna till oförklarliga mekaniska brott som inte kan förutsägas med hjälp av dagens modeller. Oförutsedda brott i förpackningsmaterial samt pappersmaskiner är ett sådant exempel. Idag används därför allt för höga säkerhetsfaktorer för att undvika brott, vilket innebär en överanvändning av material och därmed negativa konsekvenser ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Syftet med detta projekt är att ta fram metoder för att bestämma optimala säkerhetsfaktorer inom konstruktion och tillverkning baserat på en uppskattning av brottsannolikheten av belastade pappersstrukturer. För att lyckas med detta behöver slumpmässigheten på fibernivå kvantifieras samt osäkerheter i lasterna bestämmas. För dessa ändamål kommer ett stokastiskt flerskaligt tillvägagångssätt i direkt kombination med tillförlitlighetsmetoder användas. Liknande metoder har framgångsrikt använts för stålbaserade strukturer. Emellertid är komplexitetsgraden när det gäller analys av tunna fibernätverk högre då dessa är anisotropa och mekaniken bakom brott i drag är drastiskt annorlunda än den i tryck. I detta projekt kommer beräkningsmässigt effektiva metoder att utvecklas för användning inom pappersindustrin, för att möjliggöra en uppskattning av brottsannolikheten. Målet är att optimera pappersmaterial och pappersbaserade produkter baserat på den uppskattade brottsannolikheten och därmed minska säkerhetsfaktorer samt materialåtgång.

Författare: Rami Mansour

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
13-344
Mittuniversitetet
Miljövänliga träbiokompositer
2013
Sammanfattning

We want to utilize commercial mechanical pulps to cost-efficiently produce new wood "fibres" suitable to use in composite applications without addition of petroleum based resins and matrix materials. This will allow for completely new product areas for composite materials from all renewable resources. The lessons learnt from our proposed project will also lead to more efficient use and production of conventional thermomechanical pulp (TMP) and chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP). Notably and important. the removal of petroleum-based materials will gain significant energy savings and is environmentally friendly.

Författare: Armando Córdova

17-344
Uppsala Universitet
E - Proton batteries
2017
Sammanfattning

In this project all-organic proton batteries have been studied targeting stable charge/discharge at 1 V cell voltage. A number of conducting redox polymers carrying different quinone redox units have been synthesized, electrochemically characterized, and studied as such protkn batteries. The approach presented in this report show which chemical features are required and waht other considerations are important to achieve both high stability (rechargeability) and cell voltage for such proton batteries. Both aqueous (water) and organic containing proton electrolytes have been studied to explore its effect on the battery characteristics which revealed markedly different results.

Författare: Rikard Emanuelsson

17-500
Karlstads Universitet
Quality control of next generation biological based medicines
2017
Sammanfattning

The project reported here was based on the results from a previous ÅF-project. In the previous project the goal was to introduce the Enhanced Quality Control Process (E-QC) concept for traditional drugs based on small molecules (< 100 Da), such as LosecR and NexiumR and ViagraR. This previous project was based on the idea that if the company can prove they have achieved a deeper scientific knowledge about the underlying mechanism in the quality controll process it should simplify considerably the necessary continual improvement of regulatory approved QC methods without the today necessary tedious filing of papers to regulatory approved QC methods without the today necessary tedious filing of papers to regulatory authorities. We were extremely successful with this ÅF-project which resulted among others in a pioneer paper and in the first prize for best thesis 2017 and AstraZeneca has now implemented the concept Enhanced Quality Control Process (Enhanced -QC) for recently approved drug application for the anti-depressant MianserinR.

Författare: Torgny Fornstedt

18-371
Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan KTH
Lignin-based capsule structures for new high-end technical applications
2018
Sammanfattning

This project aims at unraveling the potential of an under-utilized by-product of technical processing of lignocellulosic biomass to pulp, namely lignin. Lignin is mostly produced through pulping of wood as a by-product and burnt to produce electricity to support the pulp mills. Lignin is the world’s leading renewable phenolic polymer, but despite this its use in different technical and chemical applications has only recently been studied. The heterogeneity in lignin molecular structure and size distribution has been one of the factors setting limitations to its application. For this reason, further refinement of lignin is required. Herein, it is in our interest to find new potential high value applications from lignin were the heterogeneity can be used as an advantage rather than viewed as a disadvantage. Recently, we exploited this heterogeneity to produce lignin-based spherical capsules and bowl-like shape capsules (unpublished results). In particular, the bowl-like structures are highly interesting and a direct consequence of the molecular weight of the lignin type used. The objectives in this proposal is to develop a facile production protocol, using different lignin types, to assemble lignin-based spherical and bowl-like capsule structures, which in the next step will be functionalized and/or carbonized. The focus is on structure-property relationships. Using lignin and wet chemistry should enable facile production protocol by utilizing the inherent properties of lignin. Such lignin-based spherical and bowl-like capsule structures are interesting (after additional functionalization) in a number of applications including energy-storage, catalysis, plasmonics and biomedical applications.

Författare: Anna Hanner (Svagan)

18-405
Högskolan i Borås
Production of new renewable and biodegradable materials, enzymes and biogas through fungal solid-state fermentation onto lignocellulosic substrates
2018
Sammanfattning

Wheat straw and wheat bran are lignocellulosic residues derived from production and processing of wheat, the most produced crop in Sweden. The proposed project intends to evaluate a new approach for valorization of those residues mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Edible filamentous fungi, found naturally growing on lignocellulosic materials or in which cellulase activities have been identified, will be used for low-energy and water solid-state fermentation. The resulting three-dimensional structure formed by fungal filaments and structurally-modified lignocellulosic materials will be subjected to compression moulding at elevated temperature to obtain a solid material. The materials will be characterized by mechanical and thermal tests and the properties will be compared to commercially available materials used in construction, tableware, and decoration materials. The biodegradability of the new materials will be tested via anaerobic digestion for production of biogas. The proposed project will also focus on the production of enzymes (e.g. cellulases and xylanases) produced during growth of the filamentous fungi as a second value-added product of the solid-state fermentation. For instance, cellulases find applications in the brewery, textile and animal feed industries. Therefore, the project provides new insights into a new management route of agricultural residues where renewable and biodegradable products with application in variable industrial sectors are produced.

Författare: Jorge Fernando Araújo Ferreira

18-449
University of Borås
Production antibacterial fibers from fungal cell wall
2018
Sammanfattning

This project aims at introduction of a new generation of chitin-chitosan fibers from fungal cell wall for possible use in textile and medical applications. Fungal chitin and chitosan are alternatives to those prepared from shellfish wastes. Chitosan-chitin fibers (obtained from shellfish resources) have already shown a good potential for medical applications for example for sutures, wound healing materials, and scaffold for tissue engineering. In this project edible strains of zygomycetes fungi will be grown in bread waste, one of the most important food wastes in Sweden in terms of production volume. Fungal cell wall fraction will be isolated and purified from the other components of the fungal cells namely proteins and lipids. A new wet spinning method will be developed for production of fibers from the chitin-chitosan fraction of the cell wall. The goal is to replace the toxic chemicals usually used in wet spinning of chitin fibers with a safe aqueous solvent. Preparation conditions will be optimized to get fibers with high strength that are suitable for e.g., sutures and textiles. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties and biodegradability of the fibers will be investigated and compared with those of commercially available fibers used in sutures and textiles. The biotechnology group of the Swedish Center for Resource Recovery has a long term experience in cultivation of fungi in different materials and application of fungal biomass as e.g., animal feed. Production of new bio-based materials e.g., superabsorbents and bioplastics, from zygomycetes fungi is another active going on research in this center. This project is a stepping stone towards deeper research in development of new biomaterials from fungal chitin-chitosan especially for medical applications.

Författare: Akram Zamani

18-537
Mittuniversitetet
Funktionella porösa cellulosamaterial
2018
Sammanfattning

Den omfattande användningen av petroleumbaserade plaster i mängder av produkter skapar miljöproblem världen över. Lösningar för att ersätta dessa produkter med förnyelsebara och bionedbrytbara material som cellulosa är därför viktiga. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa ett ultralätt material från cellulosa, som skulle kunna användas på motsvarande sätt som petroleumbaserade polymerskum. Materialet kommer även ha funktionalitet för att selektivt kunna filtrera giftiga tungmetaller ur vattensystem. Studien angriper därigenom ytterligare ett miljöproblem. Utgångsmaterialet är nativ cellulosa från trä, upplöst i vattenbaserat lösningsmedel. Genom att blanda ned kelerande surfaktanter i cellulosalösningen, följt av kraftig omrörning, kan man skapa ett stabilt skum. Detta skum kan sedan regenereras till ett fast skum, som därefter torkas till ett ultralätt material, en så kallad aerogel. Genom detta förfarande skapas ett biobaserat och biologiskt nedbrytbart material med både intressant isolerande och mekaniska egenskaper samt komplexbindande funktionalitet. Olika tillsatsämnen för att optimera struktur och mekaniska egenskaper samt främja komplexbindande förmåga kommer testas, vidare kommer regenereringsförfaranden och torkningsprocesser att optimeras. Mittuniversitetet söker 620 000 SEK från stiftelsen Åforsk för denna studie, inga medel har sökts från annan finansiär.

Författare: Ida Svanedal

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
13-341
Uppsala universitet
Högabsorberande material för energitillämpningar - från fundamentala till tekniskt tillämpade studier
2013
Sammanfattning

The optical absorption behavior of ZnO quantum dots has been investigated as a function of particle size in the quantum confined regime, between 4 and 9 nm in diameter, by using photoelectrochemical methods. Thin films of quantum dots, with 18 different sizes, were prepared on conducting substrates where the Fermi level could be controlled potentiostatically simultaneously as absorption measurements were performed. While raising the Fermi level into the conduction band, the dominant effect is a decrease in absorption as a consequence of increased electron population in the conduction band. This is a potentiostatic analogue to the Burstein-Moss shift for degenerate semiconductors,. For applied potentials in an interval of 0.2 eV below the conduction band edge, the absorption does, however, increases instead of decreases.

Författare: Tomas Edvinsson

13-360
Chalmers
New Detection Techniques for Fault Tolerant Control
2013
Sammanfattning

Detection of the blade root moment sensor failures is an important problem for fault tolerant individual pitch control, which plays a key role in reduction of uneven blade loads of large wind turbines. A new method for detection of the blade root moment sensor failuers which is based on variations induced by a vertical wind shear is described in this report. The detection is associated with monitoring of statistical properties of the difference between amplitudes of the first harmonic of the blade load, which is calculated in two different ways. The first method is based on processing of the load sensor signal, which contains a number of harmonics. The first harmonic is recovered via least squares estimation of the blade load signal with harmonic regressor and SDD (Strictly Diagonally Dominant) information matrix.

Författare: Alexander Stotsky

16-655
Chalmers
En/Pr - From electricity towards biodiesel production in yeast
2016
Sammanfattning

The aim of this project has been to investigate the opportunities to engineer the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for usage as a biocatalyst in a process where renewable electricity is converted into biodiesel. This process involves the production of acetate from CO2 and electrolysed water via microbial electrosynthesis (MES), and the subsequent conversion of acetate to biodiesel by Y.lipolytica. Within this project the production of biodiesel from acetage will be improved by metabolic engineering of Y.lipolytica. This will result in a more efficient production of biodiesel and will make the production of biodiesel from electricity more feasible process.

Författare: Eduard Kerkhoven

18-264
University West
FATigue strength improvement of welded high strength steels towards LightWeight design (FAT-LW)
0
Sammanfattning

In the continuous strive for a more sustainable world, the ability to make heavy constructions lighter in weight has a key role. Weight reduction, for example in the vehicle industry, will result in increased payload and through this, less fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The main reason to choose high strength steels (HSS) is to allow for higher stresses and reduced dimensions, taking benefit of higher strength steels with respect to the yield criterion. The industrial problem in this area is that traditionally it has been impossible to increase the fatigue properties of welded structures, even if steels of higher strength are used. However, with the latest developments, especially using high frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) to treat the weld toes and use of special welding consumables so-called Low Transformation Temperature (LTT) filler materials, it has been shown that an increasing fatigue strength has also been possible to achieve, with increasing yield strength of the steel, up to 960 MPa. Although it has been shown that use of HFMI treatment or LTT fillers are successful for increasing the fatigue properties there still exist many challenges to use these approaches industrially. The aim of the present project is to, in a critical manner, study the two improvement techniques, in order to increase understanding of the factors that control fatigue life of welded high strength steels and to help the industry in selecting the most optimal procedure. To achieve this, cruciform welded samples will be produced using LTT and conventional welding consumables in 1100 MPa and 1300 MPa yield strength steels with a plate thickness of 15 mm. Some of the welded samples will then be HFMI treated. Residual stresses in as-welded condition and after application of HFMI will be evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Fatigue testing under constant and variable amplitude loading will be performed under stress ratio of 0.5.

Författare: Ebrahim Harati

18-289
Uppsala University
To establish in-operando FTIR measurement of electrochemical reactions at Uppsala University
2018
Sammanfattning

The aim of this project is to set-up in-operando Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to analyze products formed via electrochemical reactions. This advanced characterization technique will be used to investigate interfacial reactions in rechargeable lithium (Li) and sodium (Na) ion batteries. The setup is planned to be placed at our research lab at Uppsala University, where we lack such analytical technique to study air-sensitive components such as electrode and electrolyte materials used in batteries in operando mode. I believe results obtained from such setup will have important impact to obtain a deep understanding of interfacial reactions occurring at the interfaces between the electrolyte and the electrodes. In particular, FTIR spectroscopy as a complementary technique to other analytical techniques that we are currently using (e.g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction) will enable us to have a better picture of chemical and electrochemical reactions at the interfaces in rechargeable batteries.

Författare: Reza Younesi

18-318
Energiforsk
NEPP - Nordeuropeiska energiperspektiv
2018
Sammanfattning

NEPP – Nordeuropeiska energiperspektiv (North European Energy Perspectives Project) är ett multidisciplinärt forskningsprogram med definierade forskare och definierade forskningsfrågor. NEPP fungerar som ett sammanhållande forskningskluster kring flera pågående och nya forskningsprogram och projekt. För NEPP gäller att verksamheten ska: - Bidra till att ge energiföretagen, myndigheter, politiker och kunderna på energimarknaderna ingående kunskap om de utmaningar och möjligheter som väntar inom energiområdet - Bidra till att bättre underbygga de energipolitiska besluten nationellt och internationellt - Bidra med kunskap som kan läggas till grund för investeringsbeslut inom energiområdet - Skapa erkända mötesplatser (forum) för faktabaserad dialog mellan energiföretagen, politiker, myndigheter, forskare och energimarknadernas kunder - Stärka forskningssamarbetet och kunskapsöverfö¬ringen mellan forskare i Norden och Nordeuropa. Tyngdpunkten i NEPP ligger vid synteser i ett systemperspektiv. NEPP har som mål att fördjupa kunskaperna om: - Utvecklingen av Sveriges och Nordens energisystem – i perspektiven 2020, 2030 samt mot 2050 – som resultat av förändringsfaktorer, t.ex. Sveriges och EU:s energi- och klimatpolitik. - Utvecklingen av energisystemen på regional och lokal nivå som en följd av centrala förändringsfaktorer på nationell och internationell nivå. - Kostnadseffektiva vägval och nödvändiga åtgärder som måste till för att nå uppsatta mål. - De samhällsekonomiska effekterna samt möjligheterna och utmaningarna för energisystemens aktörer av planerade förändringar och redan fattade beslut.

Författare: Stefan Montin

18-328
Umeå universitet
Högfluorerade ämnen i hushållsavfall – förekomst i avfallet och lakning/spridning till omgivande miljö
2018
Sammanfattning

Högfluorerade ämnen, eller PFAS, är en typ av kemikalier som används i ett stort antal produkter, exv som fettavvisande beläggning på papper och livsmedelsförpackningar, i rengöringsmedel, brandskum, och som hjälpkemikalie vid tillverkningen av polymeren polytetrafluoretylen (PTFE/Teflon). Det mest kända exemplet är PFOS (perfluoroktansulfonat) som är förbjuden inom EU. PFOS ingår även i Stockholmskonventionen för persistenta organiska miljögifter samt i FNs luftvårdskonvention. Detta har medfört att användningen av PFOS minskat, även om det fortfarande tillverkas. När de PFAS-innehållande produkterna nått slutet av sin livslängd hamnar de i avfall som skickas till avfallsförbränning. Vad som sker med dessa ämnen i förbränningsprocessen är dock inte klarlagt, och inte heller vilken risk som föreligger för lakning av PFAS från avfallsupplag och spridning till omgivningen. Denna ansökan omfattar driftsmedel för en delstudie inom ett doktorandprojekt som utförs vid Umeå universitet, i nära samarbete med Umeå Energi. Lönemedlen är täckta men för att kunna utföra delstudien i den omfattning vi avser krävs 300 kkr för att täcka kostnader för experimentuppställningar och analyser.

Författare: Stina Jansson

18-334
Stockholm University
Robust modeling tools for exhaust gas cleaning through gas-to-particle conversion
2018
Sammanfattning

The project aims to provide a new tool for enabling engineers to model the cleaning of exhaust gases from sulfur and nitrogen oxides by conversion into airborne ammonium sulfate and nitrate particles, which can be subsequently removed by filtration. We will adapt existing state-of-the-art models applied within atmospheric sciences, and extend them for handling exhaust gas conditions. Aerosol models used in climate research are able to capture the formation and growth of atmospheric particles from vapors, but they have not been exploited in engineering applications. We wish to leverage these tools to empower engineers and find new solutions to mitigate harmful emissions. The main goals of the project are: 1) To develop novel and freely available models to predict aerosol particle formation and growth in exhaust flue gas conditions. 2) To map the ideal operating conditions for a gas cleaning unit, including optimizing the particle formation efficiency, and ensuring sufficient conversion of pollutants into collectable particulate matter. This will involve active discussion and collaboration with experimental scientists.

Författare: Tinja Olenius

18-352
Lund University
Cost-efficient nano-structured surfaces enhancing boiling performance for sustainable energy conversion
2018
Sammanfattning

The project is planned for three years starting from 2019.01. It will be carried out at the Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University. The applicant and one PhD student will be mainly engaged in the project. The high heat transfer rates during boiling, utilizing the large latent heat, are essential to various energy and industrial applications such as power generation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, power plants, chemical processing, waste heat recovery; but boiling is inherently associated with relatively low thermodynamic efficiencies and limited by the occurrence of critical heat flux. Besides, with increasing heat loads of continuously shrinking semiconductor devices and chips (e.g., biochips), there is an urgent need for innovative and compact thermal management schemes for solving tough high-power electronics cooling challenges or tailoring rapid local temperature control of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The effectiveness of boiling can be largely enhanced through careful control of the chemico-physical characteristics of the heat transfer surface. This project aims to enhance boiling heat transfer by cost-effective nano- and hybrid nano/microstructured surfaces and to further reveal the underlying heat transfer mechanisms based on coupled experimental and theoretical analyses. New scientific knowledge frontier, in terms of multiscale surface features to address the multiple length scales associated with boiling phenomenon, is expected. As advanced surface engineering, micro/nanostructured surfaces targeted in this project for boiling heat transfer represent next-generation heat transfer technology that can be implemented either by retrofitting existing technological needs or in catalyzing implementation of future renewable energy systems and a green environment.

Författare: Zan Wu

18-370
Linköping University
Atomistic Surface Engineering of SiC Photoelectrode for Efficient Conversion of CO2 to Solar Fuel
2018
Sammanfattning

This project aims to explore a novel method for efficient conversion CO2 in the forms of value fuels (CH4, CH3OH, HCOOH) via the harnessing of abundant and clean solar energy. We will design the system using silicon carbide (SiC) electrode, a well-known environment-friendly and industrialized semiconductor, as the potential applicable photoelectrode. Via rationally engineering the atomistic surface structure of SiC, including exposing active polar surface, hybridizing its surface with conductive graphene/cocatalysts, and introducing carbon vacancy, efficient conversion of CO2 to solar fuels with desirable reactivity and selectivity will be explored. Our society highly depends on the use of fossil fuels, which results in the global warming due to increasing atmospheric CO2. The reduction of CO2 in terms of producing fuels will be an expedient accomplishment to address the clime change problems. However, conversion of CO2 still exhibits dissatisfactory quantum yield. In most cases, poor absorption of semiconductors to visible light, which accounts for about 47% of solar irradiance, and robust charge carriers recombination within semiconductors, account for the poor solar energy conversion efficiency. It has been demonstrated that surface structure of photocatalysts indeed determines the conversion efficiency as compared with the bulk structure and composition. To improve the solar CO2 reduction efficiency, this project mainly focuses on atomic design of the surface structure of photoelectrode along with the modern material characterization techniques and electronic structure computations.

Författare: Hao Li

18-393
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB
Minskad korrosion i ångpannor genom temperaturpulsning
2018
Sammanfattning

Projektets syfte är att utvärdera en innovativ metod för att minska korrosionsproblem på överhettartuber i ångpannor som eldar fasta biobaserade bränslen. Problemen med överhettarkorrosion kan ofta härledas till förekomsten av alkaliklorider i den beläggning som bildas på tuberna. Tidigare experiment har visat att klor drivs ut från bildade beläggningar på överhettartuber relativt omgående om materialets temperatur ökar uppemot 700°C. När materialet sedan kyls till ordinarie temperatur (typiskt 500-550°C) så börjar klor återigen samlas i beläggningen, men till en lägre hastighet än initialt. Frågan är om kloret som åter ansamlas på beläggningen efter en temperaturpuls företrädelsevis fastnar i beläggningens ytterskikt. Om så är fallet kommer kloret inte att vara aktivt i korrosionsangrepp på tubmaterialet, vilket medför att förutsättningen för överhettarkorrosion minskar kraftigt. Följaktligen skulle tubernas beläggningar kunna renas från aggressiva klorföreningar genom kortvariga regelbundna temperaturökningar. I praktiken skulle dessa temperaturökningar kunna ske genom att det kylande ångflödet genom tuberna stryps, i några av tuberna åt gången, utan att öka ångtrycket. Föreliggande projektförslag syftar till att experimentellt prova om denna typ av temperaturpulser har potential att betydligt minska korrosionsangreppen på överhettartuber. Det skulle i så fall möjliggöra förhöjda ångdata och/eller ökad materiallivslängd för överhettare.

Författare: Fredrik Niklasson

18-396
Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
Målanpassade åtgärdsenheter i ett gränslöst skogsbruk (Ref till tidigare beviljad ansökan 17-524)
2018
Sammanfattning

Dagens ansatser för planering av skogsbruk baseras i de flesta fall på att skogen delas in i homogena områden, s.k. avdelningar om 1-10 hektar, som sedan beskrivs med medelvärden för avdelningen, t.ex. ålder, stamvolym, trädhöjd, etc. Man antar i planeringen att samma typ av skötsel appliceras på hela avdelningen, dvs. beskrivningseneheten är synonym med åtgärdsenheten. Detta förfarande är utarbetat för förhållanden när detaljerade skogliga data var svåra att producera och lagra. Det var helt enkelt inte möjligt att beskriva skogen på annat sätt. I dag kan dock skogen beskrivas mycket mer detaljerat. Tekniska framsteg som gjorts inom fjärranalys möjliggör att man nu med t.ex. flygburen laserskanning kan beskriva skogen i mindre områden (12*12 meters pixlar) i stället för att endast beskriva skogen i medeltal inom avdelningar. Detta kan ge stora ekonomiska och ekologiska vinster då skogsbruket skulle kunna anpassas till den naturliga variation som finns i landskapet, alltså ett steg mot ett precisionsskogsbruk istället för dagens schablonartade skogsbruk. Tyvärr finns i dag inga planeringsmodeller som kan användas i skogsbruket som till fullo utnyttjar dessa nya möjligheter. I detta forskningsprojekt föreslås därför planeringsansatser för målanpassade åtgärdsenheter helt fria från det hittillsvarande statiska avdelningsbegreppet. Syftet med projekt är att utveckla en planeringsansats för skogsbruk med hög hänsyn till både ekonomiska, ekologiska och sociala värden baserad på dynamiska åtgärdsenheter. De dynamiska åtgärdsenheterna är en funktion av ägarens mål och baseras på pixelvisa beskrivningar av skogslandskapet. Till skillnad från de traditionella statiska avdelningar när indelningen är permanent över hela planeringshorisonten så kan dessa dynamiska åtgärdsenheter förändras över tid samt anpassas till ägarens målsättningar.

Författare: Karin Öhman

18-429
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Återvunnen betongkross i klimatneutrala konstruktioner inom transportinfrastruktur
2018
Sammanfattning

Projektet syftar till att undersöka vilken inverkan på det globala strukturella beteendet det medför att använda fraktioner av återvunnen betongkross i armerade betongkomponenter inom transportinfrastruktur. Inom projektet utförs experimentella försök både på materiell och strukturell nivå för att erhålla en fördjupad förståelse för de utvecklade kompositmaterialens mekaniska egenskaper. Projektet avser påvisa potentialen av att använda återvunnen betongkross i en strukturell betongprodukt vilket anses vara en ansvarsfull användning av materialresurser och en innovativ produktförädling jämfört med nuvarande användningen av betongkross som ett ”återvunnit material”. Projektet kommer att vara ett samarbete mellan forskningsinstitut (RISE), akademi (Chalmers) samt industriella partner (Thomas Concrete Group) som är aktiva inom Sveriges infrastrukturindustri.

Författare: Natalie Leonor Portal

18-441
Chalmers tekniska högskola
Development of advanced methods for investigation and counteracting of membrane fouling during recovery of extracted wood components in biorefinery processing
2018
Sammanfattning

Development of wood based biorefinery processes are central to replacing fossil raw materials, as oil and gas, for the sustainable production of materials, chemicals and fuel. To utilize the biomaterial efficiently extensive degradation should be avoided and wood constituents in the form of both particles as well as dissolved polymers and macromolecules needs to be recovered. This requires the use of selective and cost-efficient separation methods as process streams will contain heterogenetic mixtures of constituents which will limit the value and usability of the components. Here membrane filtration is going to be a key operation. As a pressure driven operation it is potentially a very energy efficient method that can be used to concentrate, fractionate and purify extracted components enabling utilisation in high value applications. One of the largest challenge when using membranes for separation is fouling and these fouling problems can be expected to very severe for the streams in the biorefinery. This 13 month postdoc project aims to apply a new method still under development, fluid dynamic gauging (FDG), to investigate how process parameters can be utilised to decrease the effect of surface fouling. The project will focus on membrane separation in a system where fouling poses a central challenge: recovery of high molecular weight hemicellulose from extraction streams containing mixtures of wood components. FDG will be used in-situ during membrane operations at varying process conditions to investigate fouling layer thickness as well as cohesive and adhesive strength. These characteristics will then be used to develop antifouling strategies which will be evaluated. The project contributes towards a more efficient separation and recovery of high molecular weight hemicellulose, which can be used e.g. for barrier films, but it also builds a methodology and develops tools that will be valuable investigation of other membrane fouling issues within the biorefinery.

Författare: Tuve Mattsson

18-443
RISE
Improved communication of environmental impacts
2018
Sammanfattning

The purpose of using environmental assessment tools is ultimately to decrease environmental impact. It is thus essential that the results of the assessments are understood and employed by the target audience. Nevertheless, the explanation of such results is often abstract, limited or even missing. This project will review alternatives for interpreting results, in order to provide guidelines for comprehensive communication of environmental impacts to non-experts, and thereby help industry and policy makers form better decisions.

Författare: Frida Røyne

18-453
Lund University
Comparison of DCIP and SIP tomography for hydrogeological applications at test sites in Germany and Sweden
2018
Sammanfattning

The ongoing LINKIP research project (funded by the EU-Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action, Individual Fellowship) has the aim of a development of a new geophysical research approach for characterising the subsurface for groundwater management and protection purposes. The main objective of this project is to assess how enhanced spectral resolution in DCIP (Direct Current Induced Polarization) data can be used to better characterize the subsurface with the newest optimized data acquisition hardware in combination with the latest developments in data processing algorithms. For that, both geophysical methods, Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) and Time Domain Induced Polarization (TDIP) should be linked together (LINK IP). With the knowledge of the link between the spectral information in TDIP and hydraulic properties the results will give a very valuable tool for mapping drinking water and its vulnerability, and further important applications (e.g. contaminations, landfill, mineral exploration, non-destructive testing of building materials and wood, etc.). To enhance these studies far-reaching field experiments are planned together with international partners from Austria and Germany. Due to the broader expertise and the additional instruments and processing algorithms a systematic comparison of the both methods can be carried out. For that comparison two test sites with different geological setting were chosen to validate the new geophysical research approach. Furthermore, to verify the geophysical data, also a few drilling points are planned at the Swedish test site. The results are of big interest for the international research community, and in particularly for the LINKIP project, as well as for practitioners. The first results will be presented at the 5th international IP workshop in October 2018 at Rutgers University, USA. The joint results from both experiments will be published in a peer review paper.

Författare: Tina Martin

18-459
Luleå University of Technology
Advanced purification platforms for removal of the pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater
2018
Sammanfattning

Abstract: Water resource plays an important role in the development of human life. Moreover, there is an increase in the need to the freshwater due to increase in human population. The global human population will reach 9.6 billion by the year 2050 thus; there will further increase in freshwater demand for different activities such as human use, agriculture, industry. Thus, we need to consume water more efficiently as well develop new methods to earn fresh water. In this vein, researchers are looking at the wastewaters as a potential source of water for agriculture. However, wastewater is a source of pollutants such as industrial dyes, heavy metals and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) which can be harmful. In the last fifteen years, PhACs and especially antibiotics have been receiving increasing attention as contaminants which can affect water quality, ecosystem, and human health. Lindberg et.al at Umeå University (2004-2006), have investigated a hospital effluent and sludge from five sewage treatment plants across Sweden by new analytical methods. The results indicated high levels of different antibiotics in the hospital effluent as well sewage treatment plants. A variety of methods like physical separation including membrane separation, adsorption and also their combinational processes have been complimented for removal of pollutants. In adsorption method, the pollutants are adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent where membrane separation is based on the exclusion or electrostatic repulsion between the membrane and the pollutant compounds. The objective of this study is to develop new material/technologies for selective removal of PhACs like antibiotics. In this vein, hydrogel and ceramic based membranes will be developed and the possibility of using these materials as adsorbent or membrane process will be investigated. The developed scaffolds will be tested by the model antibiotics as well industrial wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry.

Författare: Dariush Nikjoo

18-466
Jönköping University
3DSURF
2018
Sammanfattning

In this study, the challenges related to the surface quality of 3D printed materials are addressed. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a technology that builds objects by using a 3D modeling software and is predicted to grow significantly due to the market demands for customizing products, sustainability, reducing manufacturing cost, time and energy consumption as well as carbon footprint. Despite all these advantages there are some drawbacks and shortcoming including poor surface quality in this process that must be solved to keep AM competitive with other technologies. The rapid cooling rates and directional solidification in AM processing, result in different material microstructure from its cast and wrought counterparts. Anisotropic and non-equilibrium microstructures and metallurgical defects as well as porosity are microstructural features of AM materials which have their own impact on corrosion resistance. Therefore, understanding the principle of AM, its application and implication is necessary to overcome the barriers for its rapid adoption. This study focused on maraging steel which is a promising material for dies and moulding tool applications. Hence, its surface quality must be improved. On the other hand, corrosion resistance is one of the most important properties for industrial application and maraging steel has demonstrated good corrosion resistance which may influenced by 3D processing. In this order, electropolishing as an interesting candidate was chosen and its effect on surface topography of 3D maraging steel will be discussed. However, electropolishing of maraging steel due to their special microstructure characteristics has also many challenges. Therefore, different parameters will be checked to find out the optimized conditions. In addition, corrosion resistance of 3D printed maraging steel in as built and aged structure will also be studied to find out if 3D sample preserves the same good corrosion properties as conventional one.

Författare: Donya Ahmadkhaniha

18-483
Swerea KIMAB AB
Development of laboratory test methods for evaluation of high temperature corrosion below corrosive deposits
2018
Sammanfattning

Laboratory tests for high temperature corrosion are great tools in order to evaluate material behaviour in different gas atmospheres. Most exposures in laboratory are, however, performed isothermal and the actual situation in for instance a boiler is often that the metals are cooler than the flue gas at places where the most corrosion problems are observed. In order to better simulate the field in laboratory, test method development is needed. In this project, a cooled laboratory probe similar to probes used in field tests will be constructed. By using a cooled laboratory probe, process parameters can be tested in laboratory. It is not always easy to test, for instance, different process parameters in a field test since this will affect the whole boiler during the test. Performing more tests in laboratory can give input data to how process parameters can be tested in a final field test with less risk for the boiler during the test. More and faster laboratory tests could thus result in less and safer field test needed for evaluating a change of process parameters. The overall objective of the project is to create a solution for performing laboratory tests as a complement to field exposures in the combustion industry. Enabling this kind of test method, process parameters like different flue gas composition, temperatures and deposit composition can be tested in laboratory and decrease the number of field exposures needed.

Författare: Annika Talus

18-485
Chalmers University of Technology
CRISPR/dCAS9 mediated in vivo enzyme engineering in yeast cell factories
2018
Sammanfattning

Microbial cell factories are important tools to enable the paradigm shift from a petrol-based industry towards bio-based production regimes. Besides of being more sustainable, these microbial production processes also have to provide cost-competitive production routes compared to current ways of manufacture. New tools and tailored high throughput screening techniques are desperately needed to accelerate microbial strain development to bring more products from lab to market. Enzyme engineering is a key enabling technology within this field to optimize metabolic pathways towards the efficient production of a product of interest. This project is focussed on establishing a new method for targeted enzyme engineering and high throughput screening for high performing enzyme variants. The use of advanced synthetic biology tools will allow for a directed evolution of specific target enzymes in vivo. Intracellular biosensors will be used to screen for enzymes with better performance. The system will be established in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was already proven to be a robust production host in various bio-based industrial processes. The concept will be applied for yeast-based production of fatty acids and derived products with pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and industrial applications.

Författare: Florian David

18-489
Blekinge Institute of Technology
An experimental study on the problem of hydrogen embrittlement in hydrogen driven transport in energy technology
2018
Sammanfattning

Hydrogen fuel is a promising alternative energy source with both economical and environmental advantages. The usage of hydrogen requires secure pressurised containers. The mechanical strength and impermeability paired with reasonable cost does yet require metallic containers. However, the main challenge with metals in hydrogen environment is their susceptibility to hydrogen that causes various hydrogen related forms of embrittlement. The proposed project is an experimental and theoretical investigation with the ambition to understand the influence of hydrogen on a few different metals, which are considered to be good candidates for container materials in hydrogen driven transport in energy technology. The project intends to extend experiments that have been performed, and obtain important data to consolidate and verify some new and unknown phenomena in recent theories that has been formulated in the main applicants doctoral thesis. Several earlier observed phenomena were explained in the thesis, but some new phenomena that where derived in the thesis of the applicant still require additional experiments. The project aims at increase the understanding of basic obstacles for a hydrogen driven transport sector in energy technology. In the best case the study will give an ideas of developing laminate containers. The study include mechanical test, observation of surfaces and cross sections with respect to plastic deformation, fracture processes, density of hydrides, cross sectional thickness profiles and surface roughness by optical and atomic force microscopy. Comparison between observations and predictions made by phase-field models, will be made. The differences and similarities between metals will be compared and discussed. Influences of different thicknesses will be monitored and discussed with respect to the possibilities of developing advanced laminates.

Författare: Wureguli Reheman

18-498
KTH - Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan
NEWS (New Experimental Wind-tunnel Setup)
2018
Sammanfattning

Turbulens är ett strömningstillstånd vars frågor gäckat forskare under flera decennier. Turbulent strömning är minst sagt komplex och kan beskrivas med termer som oordning, kaos och oförutsägbarhet. Turbulens anses även utgöra ett av den klassiska fysikens ännu olösta problem. Förståelsen för turbulens är dessutom vital i många tekniska sammanhang, som när man exempelvis vill beräkna strömningsmotstånd på farkoster eller förstå hur man bäst utformar en vindkraftspark, men även hur väder och vind kan förutspås. Turbulens är även centralt för värmeöverföring, som sker i exempelvis värmeväxlare, och för olika typer av omblandningar inom processindustrin. Strömningsfysiklaboratoriet på Institutionen för Mekanik på KTH bedriver världsledande experimentell grundforskning inom bland annat turbulens. För att kunna tackla turbulensens gåtor krävs det att man gör fler experiment vid höga Reynolds tal, som ofta kan likställas med höga hastigheter och små längd- och tidsskalor. För att kunna göra avancerade hastighetsmätningar i turbulent strömning har vi nyligen skaffat oss ett optiskt mätsystem med så pass specifika egenskaper att det kan anses vara unikt. Inköpet möjliggjordes genom infrastrukturanslaget MUSCLE från Wallenbergs stiftelse. Genom ett anslag från Vetenskapsrådet (HIRETURN, 2018-2020) har vi finansiering för att göra mätningar i CICLoPE, som är beläget utanför Bologna. CICLoPE är en ny vindtunnelfacilitet med förutsättning att kunna ge svar på frågor vi sökt i årtionden. För att kunna maximera Sveriges vetenskapliga bidrag till forskningssamfundet inom turbulens ämnar vi designa och konstruera ÅForsk-NEWS, som står för New Experimental Wind-tunnel Setup. Denna specialtillverkade mätsträcka, som även instrumenteras, kalibreras och testas på KTH innan transport mot Bologna, kommer att möjliggöra mätningar som tidigare aldrig gjorts och därmed kunna få ett stort genomslag inom forskarvärlden.

Författare: Jens Fransson

18-553
Lund University
Seasonal and spatial patterns in boreal dissolved organic carbon export
2018
Sammanfattning

During the last decades the concentrations of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) has been increasing in Sweden. The exact reason for this increase is still not fully understood, but it is known that the increase is due to increased DOC export from terrestrial systems. As the increases in DOC have been linked with the reduction of water quality, it is crucial to know how future environmental changes in the boreal region will affect the export of DOC from land to water. However, at the moment spatial and temporal dynamics are not yet fully understood, hampering efforts for accurate predictions. Our view is that at least part of this problem lies in the fact that litter is often ignored as a credible DOC source in boreal waters. In previous studies we have shown that DOC production from litter is quite substantial in the boreal forest, but the question remains whether or not this carbon is exported to the stream network. Here we argue that the production of DOC from litter is due to its high production potential, seasonality and landscape variability a likely candidate for driving spatial-temporal DOC dynamics. By using the trusted 13C mixed modelling technique with new knowledge from our previous research we set out to investigate the relative contribution of litter derived DOC compared to DOC originating from peat soils within the aquatic system of the boreal forest. Our project consists of a year long seasonal study where water samples are taken from different streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden and then analyzed in detail on DOC, decay of DOC, chemistry, bacterial production among other parameters. The dataset this will yield will provide detailed insights into spatial and temporal variations in bacterial growth, bacterial efficiency, bacterial substrate preferences as well as the quality, quantity and source of the DOC within boreal streams. This in turn will help increase our understanding of spatial-temporal DOC dynamics.

Författare: Geert Hensgens

18-559
Luleå Tekniska Universitet
Energy-efficient production of solar grade silicon from industrial waste
2018
Sammanfattning

The purpose of the proposed project is to develop a new energy efficient, sustainable and profitable process for producing gaseous silicon compounds and solid silicon from industrial waste. The process is based on solvent extraction of fluorosilicic acid (FSA) and subsequent decomposition to silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), which is then converted to valuable monosilane (SiH4). The gaseous silicon compounds (SiF4 and SiH4) will have sufficient purity (solar grade, at least 99.9999%) for use in the manufacturing of solar cells in existing processes. The compounds can be used for solar cells in the form of thin films (produced by CVD from SiH4) or wafers (by melting the polysilicon obtained by decomposition of SiH4). The costs and energy use of the new process will be much lower than for current processes enabling solar electricity to compete with electricity produced from fossil fuel. The new process can probably also be used to produce materials with electronic grade (at least 99.999999%). In the present application, funding is sought for the development of a packed bed for stripping FSA with fuming sulfuric acid. The activities will take place during the period 2018/07/01-2020/12/31.

Författare: Johanne Mouzon

18-96
Uppsala universitet
Gubbslemmet tar över - en ny sorts algblomning med konsekvenser för ekosystem i sjöar
2018
Sammanfattning

Syftet med föreliggande projekt är att undersöka orsaker till och konsekvenser av algblomningar av arten Gonyostomum semen ("gubbslem"). Denna typ av algblomning ökar i svenska vatten men dess orsaker och konsekvenser är fortfarande i stor utsträckning okända. I detta projekt vill vi testa hypotesen att förekomsten av dessa algblomningar gynnas av ökande järnkoncentrationer i sjövatten. Denna hypotes kommer vi att testa i form av laboratorieförsök där tillväxen kommer att undersökas vid tillsats av järn i olika koncentrationer. En alternativ förklaring som kommer att undersökas med hjälp av fältstudier är att transporten av celler från våtmarker i sjöars tillrinningsområden bidrar till algblomningarna. Konsekvenserna av den här typen av algblomningar kan vara direkta i form av försämrad drickvatten- och badvattenkvalitet eftersom algerna bildar ett slem som kan ge upphov till hudirritationer. Hur stora dessa problem är är ännu okänt och därför kommer vi att i form av en enkät ställd till vattenverk, kommuner och länsstyrelser undersökan omfattningen av det här problemet. Algblomingarna kan dock också ha "positiva" effekter i form av minskad avgång av växthusgaser från sjöar till atmosfären. Genom fältförsök kommer vi därför att undersöka vad som händer med växthusgaserna i sjöar under perioder av kraftiga algblomningar. Ett bidrag till lönemedel till en doktorandtjänst till detta projekt har tidigare givits av Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lamms minne och denna ansökan avser därför medel för materialkostnader och resor.

Författare: Eva Lindström

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
13-347
ÅF-Industry AB
Elektrolys av natriumsulfat - effektivare användning av saltkaka och elfilerstoft i massabruk
2013
Sammanfattning

The pulp mill of today is very efficient with low losses of chemicals and an effective chemical recovery system,. The high degree of closure is positive for the mill economy, water consumption and environmental impact, but also brings negative aspects. In a closed system the Na/S balance and build-up of K and Ci in the mill process streams has to be controlled. The chemical balances are today normally controlled by purging ESP dust (or ESP dust treated to obtain a more concentrated purge) and compensating with make-up chemicals to maintain the Na/S ratio at the desired level. This is costly and leads to the release of salt to the environment.

Författare: Ragnar Stare

16-514
Swerea KIMAB
In-situ X-ray radiographic quality control of 3D printed metal components
2016
Sammanfattning

In this study techniques, setups, and procedures for in-situ (as built, layer by layer) X-ray nondestructive evaluation of metal components 3D printed with powder bed fusion or directed energy deposition have been explored,. Mathematical models have been utilized on order to estimate the applicabiliiy of the proposed techniques. Simple experiments have been conducted in order to verify some, far from all, of the requirements and assumptions. Both the possibility to utilize the built in electron beam in the powder bed fusion electron beam melting machines as the source producing X-rays as well as the option to utilize external X-ray sources for the case of the directed energy deposition processes have been explored. A proposed concept for backscattered X-ray imaging with an X-ray source has been simulated as seems promising for the application of in-situ layer-by-layer detection and depth positioning of small gas pores. A transmission X-ray imaging concept, less explored, has also been proposed.

Författare: Erik Lindgren

18-316
KTH-Royal Institute of Technology
VALORIZATION OF FOREST RESIDUES INTO GREEN PACKAGING NANOCOMPOSITES BY SEQUENTIAL MULTICOMPONENT ISOLATION OF BIOPOLYMERS AND CELLULOSE NANOPARTICLES
2018
Sammanfattning

The extraction of biomass to produce paper, furniture and energy generates large amounts of forest residues (branches, needles, tops, bark and un-merchantable wood) that are often subjected to controlled burning or are left in large piles, causing a negative environmental impact and risks of pests and fire in warmer countries.Swedish productive forest lands cover 23 Mha from where 85 Mm3 per year of trees are cut, producing a great amount of logging residues (around 20 Mm3/year). This proposal intends to valorize the logging residues into value-added packaging nanocomposites by sequential multicomponent isolation of biopolymer fractions and cellulose nanoparticles. To do that, it is proposed to deconstruct the forest residues into individual molecular components, to then reassemble them into green nanocomposites with functional barrier properties. Cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils will be isolated from residual biomass to later be used as reinforcing agents to be applied in hemicellulosic and lignin-based composites. The hemicellulose and lignin polymers will be obtained as side-stream products from the isolation of cellulosic nanoparticles with the challenge to create a sustainable cascade biorefinery procedure. All the designed nanocomposites will be characterized and subjected to different water ageing environments to check their performance, their durability and their applicability as a packaging material. Converting forest residues in novel functional materials trough their fractionation into biopolymers and cellulose nanoparticles will be a sustainable approach that will provide economic and social extra value to the forest residues within the biorefinery concept. Furthermore, the use of this residual biomass as an alternative to fossil resources for the production of green packaging materials will reduce society´s petroleum dependency, stabilizing the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and mitigating climate change.

Författare: Rosana Moriana-Torró

18-346
Mittuniversitetet
Cellulose-based barrier films for microencapsulation of nonpolar liquids and gases
2018
Sammanfattning

Att kunna utnyttja cellulosa i nya produkter beror i hög grad på möjligheterna att förändra biomaterialets fysiska form och därigenom dess egenskaper vid processning och i efterföljande tillämpningar. Ett bra exempel på detta är de landvinningar som till dags dato gjorts vid tillverkning och användning av nanocellulosa. Upplösning av cellulosapappersmassa i vattenbaserade lösningsmedelssystem har potential att på ett liknande sätt kunna skalas upp till en hållbar process för tillverkning av material som kan ersätta oljebaserade produkter i framtiden. Nya vetenskapliga rön som pekar på att hydrofob växelverkan och jonisering är minst lika viktiga beakta vid cellulosaupplösning som brytande av vätebindningar, ger andra infallsvinklar och öppnar nya möjligheter även för design av cellulosabaserade material. Genom att behandla cellulosapappersmassan med lut och enkla tillsatser som bland annat urinämne, ser vi stora möjligheter till att kunna skapa storskaliga och hållbara tillverkningsprocesser för helt nya material baserat på cellulosa som kan ersätta plast i olika former i framtiden, men också har möjlighet att skapa unika och mycket smartare biomaterial. Utifrån ovanstående så föreslår vi i detta projekt fördjupade studier om hur cellulosabaserade nanokompositer kan tillverkas och användas för inkapsling av opolära vätskor och gaser som till exempel kan användas inom färg-, livsmedel- och läkemedelsapplikationer, eller som lättviktsfyllmedel i andra kompositmaterial som kan användas för tillverkning av en mängd olika produkter.

Författare: Magnus Norgren

18-413
Uppsala University
Development of sustainable activated carbons from nanocellulose for industrial CO2 capture and volatile organic compounds removal
2018
Sammanfattning

The project had mainly focused on the development of sustainable nanocelluloses and their nanocomposites for environmental and energy related applications. The research results indicate that nanocelluloses can be used as raw materials to prepare porous carbon aerogels for CO2 capture and volatile organic compounds (VOC) adsorption, and as flexible templates or substrates to fabricate other functional materials with formation of novel nanocomposites for the uses in electrochemical energy storage, and VOC removal, etc. We believe that the outcomes from this project not only contribute to the fundamental research in nanocelluloses and functional nanomaterials, but also would greatly promote the practical applications of nanocelluloses-based materials.

Författare: Chao Xu

18-425
Chalmers Tekniska Högskola
Using sunlight to catalyse demanding reactions
2018
Sammanfattning

One of society's main challenges is climate change and specifically how to transform society towards a sustainable future. It is of highest priority that bio-based raw materials can be used for production of fuels, chemicals and materials. At the same time, a decreased energy demand along with lowered formation of green-house gases is desperately needed. Some important chemical reactions, like the reduction of carbon dioxide into stable products, which can be useful both for fuel formation purposes and carbon dioxide capture. However, it is an extremely energy demanding reaction and hence not feasible under normal reaction conditions. For this reason, new and innovative technology is needed. This project aims to utilize solar energy capture by molecules in combination with heterogeneous catalysis to explore the chemistry needed for CO2 transformation, the key challenge being the transfer of electrons from the light absorbing dye to the catalytic reaction center. New knowledge concerning materials design and reaction pathways, enabling utilization of sunlight for demanding catalytic reactions will be generated. We will move beyond state-of-the art in designing materials that combine solar energy capture and heterogeneous catalysis as to explore reaction pathways to improve catalytic performance. Specifically, we will explore microemulsions as a way to synthesize well-defined nanostructures where function and reactivity can be controlled. The new materials will be studied using common materials chemistry characterization methods, together with state of the art time resolved optical spectroscopy and ATR methods.

Författare: Maria Abrahamsson

18-460
Uppsala University
Toward a rational design of novel metal oxide materials to produce hydrogen fuel
2018
Sammanfattning

Converting sunlight into molecular hydrogen is a promised path for the “green energy” in our future society. To empower Sweden maintaining a competitive edge at the international level, novel metal oxide materials to produce hydrogen fuel worth the investment for further studies. As a computational scientist and a newly appointed bitr. lektor at Uppsala University after the research training at Cambridge University, I am in the position to devise a computer-aided rational design approach to optimize the photo-electrochemistry performance and to enhance the stability of lone pair metal oxide materials in alkaline solution. In this project, a postdoctoral researcher supported by the requested funding will work with me side-by-side to discover the role of interfacial water molecules and surface charge/defects in water splitting at the lone pair metal oxide/alkaline solution interface using materials modeling.

Författare: Chao Zhang

18-532
Chalmers University of Technology
Sustainable production of oleo-chemicals: graphene-based extraction from cell factories
2018
Sammanfattning

Our society is rapidly evolving to abolish its dependence on petroleum and counter the current trends of climate change. Besides fueling the internal combustion engines, petroleum derivatives are used for producing a broad range of petro-chemicals, which are present in all aspects of our everyday lives. A viable alternative to petro-chemicals are oleo-chemicals, produced from lipid derivatives extracted from microbial cell factories, grown on recyclable plant biomass. At Chalmers SysBio we are developing yeast strains that can convert up to 70% of their biomass into lipids, which can then be used as precursors for synthesizing oleo-chemicals. A major bottleneck for scaling up the production of oleo-chemicals for industrial exploitation of microbial cell factories is the difficulty with extracting the products. Very low amounts of oleo-chemicals are secreted into the growth medium by yeast cells, and most of the lipids and their derivatives remain in membrane-bound vacuoles inside the cells. We are proposing to develop a revolutionary solution to this problem, which would make yeast cell factories for production of oleo-chemicals much more attractive. In our recent studies, we have discovered how to control orientation and length of graphene flakes to selectively penetrate cellular membranes. Here we propose to develop magnetic nanoparticles, coated with axially aligned graphene flakes, which would be capable of extracting lipids from cell factories in fermenters. Due to unique properties of graphene coating, the extraction would be performed in real time, at the same time as growth of yeast cells, without interrupting the production process. Our nanoparticles would also be made safe by design, to prevent any harmful effect on humans and the environment. This project builds on the cutting edge graphene technology present at Chalmers, to overcome a major problem for sustainable production of oleo-chemicals.

Författare: ivan mijakovic

Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
Id
Organisation
Projektnamn
År
15-392
Lunds Universitet
An alternative cell-based assay for the characterization of protein allergens
2015
Sammanfattning

The goal of this project has been to further develop the Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) test system for the prediction of protein allergens able to sensitize the respiratory tract using the established cell model MUTZ-3. We further more aimed to test a primary cell model of the bronchial epithelium, and to challenge both cell models with representative enzymes used in the detergent industry provided by Novozyme A/B, Denmark. Different methods, such as whole-genome analysis and several bioinformatical tools were used in order to develop a predicitive biomarker signature and to investigate involved mechanisms in sensitization caused by this type of substances more in detail.

Författare: Kathrin Zeller

16-494
Lunds Universitet
Connecting the terrestrial-aquatic Dissolved-Organic-Carbon dynamics
2016
Sammanfattning

Waters in the northern hemisphere are getting browner because of increased runoff of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Exact reasons for this increase are still debated, but the source of the DOC is determined to be terrestrial. Soils play an important role in the export of DOC from land to inland waters, as they can both act as a source of DOC through leaching, or as a (temporary) sink through a process called DOC sorption - which binds DOC to soil particles. Here we have found that DOC leaching in the boreal forest soils consists only of fairly recent captured carbon leached mainly from the top soils. However, mineral subsoils still maintain the ability to leach DOC - as shown by our disruptive leaching experiments. While the B horizon consists of slightly older carbon compared to the topsoil, the horizon separating the top and B horizon has an age of roughly 1000 years old. Even more surprisingly the amount of E leaching is equal to the amount of leached DOC from the B horizon. In both cases, however, it is not the old carbon that is leached, but rather the relative new carbon that can be extracted. This means that in future climate scenarios there might be less capture of DOC by soils if leaching increases as a result of increased precipitation, but it is unlikely that old carbon will be released unle

Författare: Geert Hensgens

17-381
Högskolan i Borås
BiosÅrt - Utsortering av bioplaster från återvinningsströmmen av konventionella plaster en nödvändighet?
2017
Sammanfattning

Biopolymers are presently produced in small volumes. However, in future, volumes ,may increase substantially. This may lead to contamination. This project studies what happens when bioplastics contaminate conventional plastic. Three conventional plastics were selected for this study: polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In order to simulate contamination, two bioploymers, either polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) or thermoplastic starch (TPC) were blended in to the conventional polymers. A relatively large amount of tests have been conducted and tests show that PE is relatively robust against contamination, while polypropylene (PP) is somewhat more sensitive and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be quite sensitive towards contamination.

Författare: Martin Bohlén

18-268
Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, SLU
Developing a biological active filter material for water treatment based on safe white-rot fungi
2018
Sammanfattning

Recent studies show that conventional wastewater treatment plants are ineffective in adequately removing several organic contaminates, commonly called micropollutants. New methods such as ozonation and active carbon filtration have been demonstrated to be efficient in removing these substances. However, in some situations wastewater treatment techniques based on biological processes are of interest as low-cost alternatives. Parallel with this need, a large body of research shows that bioremediation based on fungi, mycoremediation, is highly efficient for degradation of micropollutants. The main explanation for this is the capacity of certain fungal species, white-rot fungi, for extracellular release of lignin-degrading enzymes such as laccase and manganese peroxidase. In the present study the focus will be on the oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) which is one of the most produced and enjoyed mushrooms in the world. This white-rot fungi has high potential for growing on different lignocellulosic residues and in the present study it will be evaluated for laccase and manganese peroxidase production on straw, sawdust from deciduous trees and brewer´s spent grain respectively. The material with the highest production of laccase and manganese peroxidase will be evaluated for its potential to reduce concentration of the micropollutant diclofenac in contaminated water. From an applied perspective it can be concluded that the material will have a low production cost and that the used filter material is not dead-end but have potential use as biogas substrate. From a safety perspective it should also be pointed out that P. ostreatus and the raw material used for its propagation is naturally occurring in the environment and that no spore production is involved in the process.

Författare: Malin Hultberg

18-273
Uppsala Universitet
Addressing the global challenge of drinking water access by sustainable, affordable and efficient total microorganism removal filter paper
2018
Sammanfattning

Access to clean water is one of the greatest challenges for the society. It has been estimated that there are about 1.9 billion people on earth, who, at least occasionally, consume fecally contaminated water. Thus, there is a need for cost-efficient water treatment methods that do not rely on heat, chemicals, or radiation, because these methods only inactivate viruses and bacteria and do not physically remove them from water. Filtration is a robust method to remove all types of pathogens from water and provide water of highest and invariable quality. Unfortunately, the price of the filters is still inhibitive. In this project, we would like to expand our research at Uppsala University on developing the world's first filter paper that can remove all types of viruses and larger microorganisms from water as easily as brewing coffee. In particular, here we would like to develop new methods for controlling the nanopore size in the filter paper by using disruptive approaches. As the size of the pores is decreased, it becomes technologically difficult to control the pore size of the filter. This is especially true for filters with controlled nanopore size. The produced filter should feature high worst-case model particle removal efficiency, high flow rate, low fouling, and be cost-efficient. Combining all these properties in one filter is a great challenge for researchers. Our goal is to produce a filter paper that combines all these desirable properties for water purification applications.

Författare: Albert Mihranyan

18-406
Chalmers tekniska högskola
Hållbara lösningar för att minska spridning av organiska miljögifter från vägar i urbana miljöer
2018
Sammanfattning

Trafiken har pekats ut som en av de viktigaste källorna för diffus spridning av långlivade organiska miljögifter i stadsområden. Studier visar att tusentals olika organiska miljögifter emitteras i trafikmiljöer och de största källorna är fordonens avgaser, däckslitage, bromsbelägg, motoroljor och nötning av asfalt. De organiska miljögifterna kan förekomma både i partikulär och löst form, men också som nanopartiklar bundna till kolloider, plaster eller som emulsioner. Vid regn transporteras miljögifterna från vägarnas ytor och vidare via dagvattnet till vattendrag, sjöar och hav. Många organiska föroreningar har en rad olika skadliga effekter och kan t ex ackumuleras i näringskedjor och ger därmed störst skada på de djur (inklusive människan) som står högst upp i näringskedjan. I detta projekt utförs forskning på olika tekniker för att förhindra spridning av organiska miljögifter till vägdagvatten, med specifikt fokus på gatusopning och fordonstvätt. Det övergripande syftet är att undersöka hur hållbart och effektiv gatusopning och biltvätt är för att förhindra spridning av organiska föroreningar från trafiken. Den vetenskapliga utmaningen är att undersöka och förklara i vilka former de organiska miljögifterna förekommer i vatten och fasta faser. I två fallstudieområden utförs provtagning och kemisk analys av partikelfraktionerna i vägdamm och avrinning från vägytor före och efter gatusopning. Dessutom kommer olika typer av fordon och olika delar på fordonen (däck, hjulhus, kaross ovan- och undersida) att tvättas för att simulera olika typer av avrinning (regn, intensivt regn, biltvätt) och tvättvattnet analyseras med avseende på totala, lösta och kolloidala fraktioner av organiska miljögifter. I projektet utreds även, med hjälp av multikriterieanalys, hur effektivt och hållbart gatusopning och fordonstvätt är jämfört med andra åtgärder för att förhindra spridning av organiska miljögifter i vattenmiljöer.

Författare: Karin Björklund

18-418
Sodahuskommitten
Analys av processdata vid smältarusningar
2018
Sammanfattning

Sodapannan är en central funktion på ett sulfatmassabruk i sin funktion som återvinningsställe för kokkemikalier och försörjare av ånga. En sodapanna har, beroende på storlek, 2-10 stycken vattenkylda löprännor, via vilka smältan från eldstaden rinner ut och ner i sodalösaren, vilken är fylld med svaglut där smältan löses upp och bildar grönlut. För att förbättra inblandningen och upplösningen av smältan och minskning av smällar (buller) splittras den i mindre droppar med mellantrycksånga. Ojämna smältaflöden, eller ”smältarusningar”, är idag ett stort problem för flera svenska massabruk. Smältarusningarna orsakas i huvudsak av ojämnheter i driften, och kan vara svåra att förutspå p.g.a. det komplexa samspel av processvariabler som spelar in. Ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv innebär dessa en påtaglig risk när stora mängder smälta under kort tid rinner över löprännor med begränsad kapacitet- både i form av stänk på lösarplan och smällar i lösartanken. Orsakerna till smältarusningar är väldigt komplexa och beror ofta på flera bakomliggande faktorer. Studier och erfarenheter säger att det viktigaste för att minimera dessa är att säkerställa att man har en bra förbränning i pannan, med korrekt lutinsprutning som når bädden, och bra omblandning av förbränningsluften. Tanken med detta projekt är att undersöka ett flertal processvariabler (framförallt med avseende på luftsystem och bränsle) i detalj, och utvärdera hur dessa står i relation till perioder med höga smältaflöden genom statistisk analys av driftdata insamlad under en längre period. Exempel på variabler som bör studeras är total förbränningsluft tillförd pannan, luftfördelning mellan de olika nivåerna, temperatur och torrhalt på luten, sulfiditet i grön- och vitlut, input från bäddkamera, tillsatsbränslen o.s.v. Genom regressions- och flervariabelanalys fastställs statistiskt signifikanta samband och flerfaktorsamspel mellan processvariabler och problematiska perioder där smältaflödena bedöms har varit höga.

Författare: Hans Holm

18-420
Sodahuskommitten
Sprängförsök
2018
Sammanfattning

Tryckkärl som sodapannor ska provtryckas efter ingrepp i tryckkärlet. Provtryckningen ska ske med provtryck som påtagligt överstiger pannans normala drifttryck. Provtryckning är i de flesta fall ett nödvändigt sätt att säkerställa att det inte finns svagheter efter de ingrepp som gjorts. För vissa typer av ingrepp kan dock provtryckningen med höga provtryck inte förväntas ge den kontroll som önskas. Att utsätta sodapannan för höga provtryck i onödan kan vara en risk i sig och förkorta pannans livslängd. Annan typ av provning ska då genomföras i stället för provtryckningen med höga provtryck. Projektets tes är att det efter vissa typer av ingrepp inte är relevant att provtrycka pannan med höga provtryck för att avslöja en felaktig svetsning – även om det finns en felaktighet är det andra delar av tuben som kommer att ge vika först. Sprängförsöket syftar till att undersöka denna tes genom försök där rundsvetsar med svetsfel (rotfel och martensitiskt) utsätts för så höga tryck att den tub de sitter på brister. Den brustna tuben undersöks och slutsatser dras.

Författare: Hans Holm

18-535
Lunds Universitet
Computations of ice throw/fall with realistic ice shapes
2018
Sammanfattning

An accurate prediction of the ice chunk trajectories in the case of ice throw/fall from wind turbines is crucial for the correct estimate of the associated risks. A new tool for ice throw modeling is being developed at the Div. of Fluid Mechanics, Lund University, where the aim is to allow flexibility for the users to choose faster, less accurate or more advanced but computationally more demanding models for different aspects of the ice trajectory predictions. The goal of this project was to evaluate the validity of some common assumptions found in the literature, validate some of the already implemented modules, implement new features and evaluate the influence of certain physical (e.g. Reynolds number, details of the wind velocity field) or numerical (e.g. turbulence modeling, grid resolution) parameters on the predicted impact area.

Författare: Robert Szasz